Wednesday, October 30, 2019

15 Annotated Bibliographies from 15 peer reviewed scholarly published Bibliography

15 Bibliographies from 15 peer reviewed scholarly published articles, texts, or books not more than 5yrs old, on using Simulation to enhance critical thinking in nursing students - Annotated Bibliography Example A simulation quasi experiment was used to conduct the investigation where 30 participants took the â€Å"California critical thinking test† (CCTST). They were arbitrarily assigned three critical assessment sessions over a period of 2 months in a simulation lab. This allowed the teams to develop vital patient simulative thus advancing their medical thinking in provision and attending to patients effectively. Indeed patient ratio to nursing staff remains a great challenge in the world; however with adequate critical thinking support nurses cam adopt simulative techniques to identify and understand patients needs promptly and give priority response. It is clear from the this that the efficacy in delivering nursing services has greatly advanced with the enhancement of critical thinking and is currently hoped to be adopted by new graduate nurses to enable them make sound clinical decisions to deliver nursing care. The authors identify the role of educators in making simulation real in the nursing sector. Educators can employ simulation-based pedagogy to transform nursing teaching through development of decisive thinking. The aspects of this book covered diverse areas in nursing, which includes the changing needs for nursing education in the current technological multifaceted setting, meeting the challenges of clinical placement, challenges and benefits of integrating simulation techniques in nursing curriculum with proper evidence. This focuses on the importance of faculty role in embedding simulation techniques to students with the view to develop critical thinking. The simulation study was conducted over a period of 5 months in a nursing institution where study of learners exposed to the technique and the ones with no exposure by tutors were sampled. It is evident that tutors should use complex simulative samples and test in their daily teaching to engage students mind in coming with approp riate

Sunday, October 27, 2019

Analysis of E-Commerce and Supply Chain for Silver Spoon

Analysis of E-Commerce and Supply Chain for Silver Spoon Silver Spoon Snacks is a fast food eatery established first in Gulshan in the year 1965. It has expanded to a second branch in Tariq road. During its heyday it revolutionized the fast food industry by introducing the concept of à ¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ã‹Å"rolls on the menu. It enjoyed this untapped market till competitors jumped on the band wagon. The menu is diverse, including Pakistani, Chinese, Continental, Western and Indian items. There is plenty of consumer traffic in both branches especially during the evening. The Tariq Road branch serves all kinds of BBQ items, club sandwich, zinger burger and the well known rolls. The restaurant is owned and operated by a family. The branch managers are actually brothers and share shifts during the day and night. There are a total of 4 active brothers that are responsible for handling the day to day running and operations of the system. Key purchase decisions, menu expansion and supply chain decisions are handled solely by them. They have been following a paper based system since its inception. All the accounting work and record keeping is done manually in registers that are stocked at the residence every month. Literature Review According to Laudon and Laudon (Information Systems and Decision making, 2000), the supply chain is a collection of physical entities linked together into processes that supply goods or services from source through consumption. The supply chain consists of suppliers, manufacturers, wholesalers, distributors, retail outlets, logistics and consumers. This list also includes those activities that are necessary in facilitating the supply chain. Managing a supply chain is a difficult task that requires keen insight and understanding of the business processes and the environment in which it operates. The struggle is to create a network which has no weak links in terms of time delays, information gaps or inefficiencies in other words, all processes must be integrated. This is best achieved by the creation of networks with a smooth inflow and outflow of relevant information. This is the heart of e-commerce. The internet has allowed the growth of e-businesses across borders and physical limits. The use of an intranet is greatly appreciated within a company. Based on internet technology, the intranet is used primarily within a single company which allows the internal users to expand and share information across floors and walls. These locations may be domestic or may even be throughout the world (Bartoo, Elliot, and Naik-lyer, 2000). E Commerce is one of the most important facets of the internet to have developed in this day and age. Ecommerce, sometimes referred to as E Business, involves carrying out business over the Internet with the use of computers that are linked to each other forming a network. E-commerce includes the buying, selling, marketing, and servicing of goods or services through telecommunication technologies. E-Business, on the other hand, carries a broader definition, not just the buying and selling of goods and services, but servicing customers, collaborating with business partners, and conducting communications and transactions within and outside an organization. (Electronic Commerce a managerial perspective by Efrahim Turban, David King, Prentice Hall; US Ed edition October, 1999) According to ComScore a marketing research company that provides marketing data and services to many of the Internets largest businesses, E-commerce has had its first $1B day on 2nd December 2010. The heaviest online spending day in history and the first to surpass the billion-dollar threshold, declares ComScore. This goes to show how far and wide the scope of electronic buying and selling has reached. It is revolutionized the way business models are created and defined numerous opportunities for entrepreneurs and the like. E- Commerce can help a supply chain over the internet in areas such as placing and receiving orders, providing product information, tracking orders, filling and managing inventory, and recording inflows and outflows (Sunil Chopra and Jan A, Van Mieghem, Supply Chain Management Review, April 200) A critical area where e-commerce has established its presence in a supply chain is in the resource planning and inventory management function of an organization. It helps users track the inventory and where it is distributed from the organization. It helps plan for future forecasts and deal with shortages. It creates a hub where information is shared among relevant members of a business model; this is known as EDI Electronic Data Interchange. Similarly ERP (Enterprise Resource Planning) systems have emerged that serve similar functions in terms of smooth data flow between members of an organization. Relevant information relating to key business functions is then shared, matched and cross matched between departments and related companies that have partnered with the business. The goal is to streamline operations and produce a cost and time efficient process altogether. IBM and Siemens are 2 prime examples of organizations that heavily rely on supply chain applications produced by business management software such as SAP. This application has streamlined its processes thereby creating a real-time and efficient business model. Inventory management models are heavily used in large scale organizations in the fast food industry. Giant franchises such as Subway, KFC and Pizza Hut use business intelligence software for its operations. Zap is a leading software house that creates web based packages for KFC and Pizza Hut. As a starting point, a basic open source inventory management software coupled with internet technologies is an ideal way for a small to mid-sized business to start. The diagram below shows how e-commerce can efficiently distribute and coordinate the flow of information between the entities and business functions of the supply chain. The importance of information sharing and interchange is crucial to improve operational effectiveness. Research methodology Secondary research Secondary research consisted of going through research articles and existing information on e-commerce and supply chain models. Text books, class lectures and the internet served as sources for secondary research. This type of research was necessary to gain an understanding of existing supply chain models that are benefitting with the integration of e-ecommerce and its technologies. Primary research This is first hand research that needed to be conducted to gain an understanding of Silver Spoon Snacks This form of research was conducted over 2 face to face interviews and short telephone calls with the Branch Manager and Operations Manager A set of questions were asked to understand the existing supply chain model and how operations are carried out on a daily and weekly basis These questions also attempted to surface any inefficiencies and weaknesses that exist in the current setup Interviews were necessary to collect direct and relevant information from the involved people Data Analysis Input details pertaining to the Tariq Road branch Raw material listing Chicken Beef Mutton Flour Vegetables Ketchup/mustard Seasonings Equipment used Oven Fryer Coal Freezers Stove Tables and chairs Utilities used Electricity Gas Telephone Water Labour employed Head Chef Kitchen staff Head Waiter Waiters Cleaners Watchman For simplicity, the supply chain of chicken as a key and widely used ingredient will be studied throughout this report. Supply Chain system of Silver Spoon Snacks explained with the help of a flow chart. Supply Chain Defined Chicken Butcher Thursday morning or earlier depending on needs, the Chicken supplier receives an order of Boneless Chicken and Tikka pieces for the week. This order is placed via telephone by the branch manager. The quantity for chicken in Tikka and Boneless variation is verbally specified via telephone. The supplier confirms the order and a delivery time is specified. The butcher cuts the chicken according to pieces specified either Tikka pieces or Boneless for Chicken rolls. Delivery vehicle As per initial agreement between Silver Spoon and the supplier, the chicken supply will be delivered to the warehouse in the suppliers vehicle. This is part of the negotiation. The supplier will have the chicken delivered to the warehouse and settle the payment at the end of the month. Warehouse The warehouse is owned and operated by Silver Spoon owners. It has been part of the business model since 40 years and is situated off Tariq road near the Tariq road branch. The warehouse serves as a sorting point most of the raw materials. Individual branch demand is catered to and planned here. The warehouse has a large kitchen and a storage bay. Warehouse kitchen The warehouse kitchen department is responsible for all the cleaning and preparation of the raw food. This entails cleaning the chicken, removing the fat and making it hygienic and fit for cooking. Staff is employed in this department to manage the cleaning. Warehouse storage After the chicken has been cleaned, it goes into cold storage. The amount which has to be distributed to the branches on a daily basis is dispatched and the rest goes into freezers. The amount is determined in advance by branch managers. Keep in mind that a weeks supply is available for both branches at the warehouse. Official vehicle A Suzuki Pickup is on standby at the warehouse and the workers load a days worth of chicken and transport it to the both branches. 60% of the chicken goes to the Tariq Road Branch as its chicken utilization is the highest. Tariq road branch At the Tariq Road branch, the official vehicle arrives shortly with the chicken for the day. This chicken thawed, cleaned and semi marinated at the individual branches before it is ready to be finally added with the secret spices and recipes. It is immediately transported by the workers to the freezer. Kitchen + freezer As noon approaches a portion of the boneless chicken is removed from the freezer and brought to the preparation room. Here the chicken is added with seasoning, sauce and the secret spices which are made early during the day. This preparation is done by the head chef. The boneless chicken goes to the Roll preparation area and the Tikka pieces go to the BBQ area where they are cooked. Customer Once cooked, the Rolls and Tikkas are served to customers Planning system For the sake of simplicity we will go through a typical week of ordering chicken to get a grasp of the current supply system at the Tariq Road branch. This boneless chicken is used for Chicken Rolls and Chicken Boti. Whereas full chickens are used to create 4 Tikka pieces per chicken. Demand for the week is established by looking at previous trends. Basically a base demand for consumption has been established for boneless chicken of 210 kg per week. The base demand of 210kg worth of boneless chicken is always used for Rolls and Chicken Boti. On an average, 220-250kgs of boneless chicken is purchased as demand from consumers never dips below 210kg per week. For Tikkas, the base demand is 80 Tikkas per day, which makes it 560 Tikkas on an average per week. A full chicken is able to provide 4 Tikka pieces. The key considerations that determine and influence demand for chicken are: Stage of the week Friday, Saturday and Sunday are days where demand for boneless chicken is at its highest. During these days the public goes out to eat with family. Public holidays the restaurant operates during public holidays. During these days of the calendar, families choose to visit eateries and therefore the consumption of boneless chicken is high. City turmoil during expected city turmoil and expected strikes, the public operates at an accelerated pace and attempts to get things out of the way. This may entail visiting Tariq Road for work 1-2 days before the expected turmoil or unrest. Furthermore, consumption of boneless chicken falls during the days of turmoil, hence purchasing is planned accordingly. Level of commercial activity Tariq Road is heavily populated with shops and vendors. If the activity in malls and shopping strips is high, then demand for food, especially Chicken Rolls is also high as it serves the fast food concept and is economical. The factors above have the capacity to influence demand for chicken and hence the purchasing patterns vary. Chicken that is not used is then stored in freezers for next days use. This chicken is bought on Thursdays of the week from a vendor that has been partnered with the business. An order is placed via telephone on Thursday morning by the Branch Manager and it arrives by noon. If for some reason demand is abnormally high, the regular chicken supplier is contacted and is urged to make an emergency drop to the warehouse. If he is unable to do so from his own inventory, then he is responsible for making other arrangements. Supplier selection A chicken supplier is selected on the basis of: Total cost Cleaning and cutting Cost is the most important factor that ultimately determines which supplier/butcher to choose from. Silver Spoon negotiates on the basis of the foremost is cost (low or discounted price), quality, and delivery service. Secondly, it is favourable if the supplier can clean and cut the chicken into pieces at his outlet before delivering it to the Silver Spoon warehouse. Although Silver Spoon has a chicken slaughtering and cleaning/cutting facility, but is used for only further cleaning of the chicken and cutting for marinating purposes. Financial costs pertaining to Tariq Road Branch Cost for chicken: this rate is Rs. 4 per kilo less than the prevailing marketing rate. The chicken suppliers set the price every Thursday of the week. Price of chicken per kilo varies on a weekly basis and is determined by the laws of demand and supply. For example, if chicken is in excess supply then the price falls. Conversely if there is high demand then the price rises such as on weekends. Due to this the chicken suppliers set their prices on Thursday. The Tariq Road branch bears 60% of the total cost of the chicken whereas the Gulshan branch, only 40%. Consumption and sale of chicken items is the highest at the Tariq Road branch. The basis for making profits for Tikkas is to earn Rs. 20-25 profit per Tikka. Utilities Electricity Bill: varies between Rs. 50,000 to 60,000 per month. Gas Bill: varies between Rs. 10,000 to 12,000 per month Telephone Bill: Rs. 1,000 per month on an average Coal Usage: worth Rs. 1,500 on a daily basis.    Labour Employed Waiter: The starting salary per waiter is Rs. 6000 per month. Senior waiters (determined by length of employment) are paid Rs. 8000 per month. There are a total of 8 senior waiters (8 x 8000 = Rs. 64,000 per month) and 6 junior waiters (6 x 6000 = Rs. 36,000 per month). Kitchen Staff: these employees include assistants to the chef (3 assistants), and additional workers who produce other items on the menu (5 kitchen workers). They are assigned various tasks in the kitchen to add value to the system. On an average, the total labour costs assigned to the kitchen staff are Rs. 75,000 Head chef: There is 1 head Chef who is paid Rs. 12,000 per month. Total labour costs per month = Rs 64,000 + Rs 36,000 + Rs. 65,000 + 12,000 = Rs 187,000 Discussion Inefficiencies or weaknesses in the supply chain Supplier/butcher: Silver Spoon has had the same supplier for chicken for nearly 20 years. They should search the market for other suppliers that can offer competitive rates for bulk purchases of chicken. The order is placed on the phone and a Silver Spoon official does not personally monitor the chicken selection, which means an old chicken or unhealthy chicken can be part of the mix Warehouse: At the warehouse, the supplier delivery vehicle drops off the chicken and drives away after collecting the payment. There is no check here, no one counts the chicken or weighs it upon arrival so there is no way of making sure if they received the amount they paid for. There is no record system or inventory management. The chicken is not à ¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ã‹Å"logged in, just immediately shifted to the kitchen where it is cleaned for use. Therefore there is no actual account or record for the amount of chicken that entered the facility nor is there any receiving slip or receipt. Warehouse Storage: Once the chicken is cleaned and processed fit for use, it goes into storage freezers and only the days worth is kept outside for delivery. However, there is no one who counts the number of chicken breasts or legs, or kilograms of chicken that goes into the freezer. So there is no check or monitor system. Silver Spoon Snacks Vehicle The days worth of chicken is transported to the Tariq Road Branch, but there is no formal record of the amount that leaves the warehouse, nor is there any receiving document from the branches end. Branch Again, there is no counter checking or counting system of the chicken that arrives in the branch. It is blindly kept in the freezer. Customer The customer does not receive an electronic receipt. Which means that there is no formal record at Silver Spoons counter of the items sold and the cash received. There is an informal scribble in a worn out register. Other deficiencies with the current setup Marketing: There are limited marketing efforts carried out by the restaurant. At most, marketing involves re-doing the company banner or releasing a dozen flyers in the area. No website exists. Recording: It is a complete paper based system with not a computer or digital device in sight. Records are loosely maintained at the warehouse and branch in registers and journals. There is no formal record keeping system. Customers are not given receipts therefore there is no cross checking. Tracking: there is no way for Silver Spoon Snacks to forecast demand judging by trends, as figures and statistics for trends do not exist. Paper based: it is a paper based system with information regarding transactions loosely recorded in registers. Checks and balances: checks and balances do not exist, there is no tangible record keeping when it comes to inventory and purchases. It is not possible to confirm orders with suppliers and inter branch as orders are verbally given. There is no proof. Proposed system The proposed system involves the purchase of computer hardware and the use of an internet connection. The idea is to create a basic centralized system at the warehouse as the server with 2 additional linked systems at the branches. The purpose is to track and record inventory that moves into the warehouse and out to the branches. A real time system is proposed where inventory levels are monitored by the hour. The systems will need to be linked by an internet connection to provide a real time feed of information between the branches and warehouse. With an inventory management and tracking software, the loopholes and loose-ends in the current system will be neutralized. How it works Once the systems have been installed and made operational, the current stock, inventory and work in progress are uploaded to the servers. The software will be used be the warehouse, and both the branches. Each user will update the records from their end so it can be seen at the warehouse server. The software will have section for the warehouse, branch A and branch B. Depending on the fresh demand levels, the warehouse determines the quantity of chicken needed and sends an order via telephone to the butcher. Had the butcher/supplier been using a computer system (example Makro), then an email would have been dispatched instead. The quantity ordered is punched into the system and falls under the status of pending. The rate per kilo is noted. Order time is also noted. Once the stock of chicken arrives at the warehouse, its exact quantity is manually counted and weighed by an employee and then the numbers are punched into the warehouse server. This will cross check the amount ordered with the amount received. Once the figures tally, a receiving slip is generated electronically and printed after the order has been confirmed and accounted for. A slip is generated and given to the supplier and a formal record now exists in the system. A notification is sent in a matter of seconds to both branches informing them of the added inventory levels. The levels now appear on the screens of both branch A and B (Tariq road and Gulshan). Preparations are made. Depending on the opening inventory and the base level demand of 210kg of chicken and 80 Tikka pieces, each branch sends its required amount of chicken (bonless and Tikka pieces) through the softwares built in messaging system. Each transaction and order is then recorded. After the warehouse server acknowledges receipt of the order from the branch, it then forwards it verbally to the warehouse freezer where the employee loads the Silver Spoon vehicle (Suzuki pickup). The vehicle then travels to the relevant branch. A printed slip is dispatched. From the warehouse, the inventory levels are then reduced and this is also reflected in each branches terminal. Once the vehicle is unloaded at the branch, a branch employee manually supervises the unloading and stocking of the chicken in the freezer. Once confirmed and signed, the branch manager then updates his terminal with the added inventory of chicken. Back at the warehouse, the reduction in inventory is equal to the gain in inventory at both branches. As the day goes by and the orders accumulate and dispatch, the inventory levels are monitored not only at the branch, but at the warehouse as well. Each chicken Tikka order placed or each chicken roll uses a certain portion of the inventory. And once the orders are fed and updated in the Silver Spoon register, the chicken based inventory is automatically deducted. Towards the end of the day, the ending inventory is tallied and counted. The warehouse manager reads these inventories on an hourly basis and incase of a shortage dispatches a vehicle to make up for the shortfall. The cycle is then repeated every day depending on the closing inventory levels. Notes on the proposed system The recommended software for Silver Spoon Snacks is inFlow Inventory management software (http://www.inflowinventory.com/). The software is easy to use and does not require extensive training. A simple understanding of images, inputting data and confirming orders is all it takes. Free software exists, but does not provide security, reliability and expansion as inFlows suite. Each terminal is given a unique pin code which only the operator is aware of. This means only the relevant person in charge can use the terminal which is a security check as well as a confirmation. Each transaction is logged and stored in a log file sent to the warehouse computer. Backups are made on a daily basis Financial Costs involved with this system Software: although many free software packages exist, inFlow Inventory Management provides the best balance between features and cost. To create a multi user network (ideal in this case), the license cost $299 per computer for lifetime use. 3 licenses will be needed. $299 x 3 = $897 = ~ Rs. 75000 (@ Rs. 84 per U.S Dollar) Hardware needed: processor, motherboard, RAM, hard drive, casing, power supply, monitor. Based on the software requirements, the hardware cost is as follows: Tariq Road Branch cost: Rs 23,000 Gulshan Branch cost : Rs 23,000 Warehouse cost: Rs. 27,000 Total : Rs. 73,000 Internet connection: 3 connections Initial setup cost : Rs. 800 x 3 Monthly cost: Rs. 1000 x 3 Total initial investment: Rs. 75,000 (3 licenses) + (73,000 (hardware) + 2,400 (internet setup) + 3000 (first month internet payment) = Rs. 153,400 Benefits of the proposed system Accountability: first and foremost, the new system will hold each branch accountable for what it has received in its inventory. Once its handed over the inventory, it is held accountable for its storage, sales and payment. The sales of the branch should match the inventory received. Inventory control: from the moment the chicken supply reaches the warehouse, it will be tracked and accounted for. The system will make sure that there is adequate supply at all branches at all times so as to not lose out on potential sales Economic order quantity: the ideal quantity of chicken to order each week and the ideal quantity to store in the freezers can be calculated based on demand and supply conditions. Inventory planning is thereby improved. Accuracy: with figures, statistics and numbers well accounted for and cross references, the books of Silver Spoon will present and accurate picture of state of affairs. A reduction in human error in terms of calculations, counting and so on will also be witnessed. Record keeping: instead of scribbling in registers and writing journals, an electronic system with constant updates is hence created with the use of e-commerce technologies. Past transactions, exchanges, buying and selling are stored electronically thereby staying safe. The option to print out the records exists, thereby creating tangible records. Electronic Data Interchange: Information sharing between branches and the warehouse will be more convenient as real time updates and inventory levels can be monitored. Offers and promotional schemes by suppliers can also be entertained. Expansion: This inventory monitoring and management system is not just limited to chicken; it can be used for the entire product line, mutton, beef, vegetables, cold drinks, seasoning, flour and so on. The scope is limitless with unlimited suppliers and customers. Improved Customer Service and loyalty: when a customer always gets his or her desired order in desired quantity, it creates customer satisfaction and creates repeat customers. It improves loyalty as well. A computerized receipt also creates a positive impression on the customers. Reduce stock-outs and overstocks: with supply synchronized with demand, the chances of ending up with à ¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ã‹Å"expired inventory or facing shortages are greatly reduced. Shortages are prevented as inventory as planned well in advance, and in the same way excess inventory is also reducing thereby curbing inventory carrying costs. Ready alerts: if the inventory dips below a certain level at a branch, an automatically generated alert is sent to the warehouse or Gulshan branch and inventory can be moved around. Furthermore this will act as an early warning sign to the warehouse to acquire more inventory. Meeting demand: demand is almost always met unless outside forces have some play. With inventory always available due to a tracking and trend analysis system, sales will always be met. Forecasting: due to its ability to track charts and record daily transactions, the stored information can be used to conduct trend analysis for certain times of the calendar year. This will allow better planning for inventory and sales. Website: Silver Spoon Snacks Pvt. Ltd. can go on-line and have a web presence. This on its own is a marketing tool Networking: since Silver Spoon is now on-line and has a presence on the world wide web, it will be able to reach out to suppliers and customers on a larger scale. It is a ready marketing tool. It can partner with other restaurants, sponsors, FMCGs and causes. Marketing: with the use of e-commerce technologies, Silver Spoon Snacks can expand its marketing operations by sending out e-mails and creating ad banners and partnering with other websites. Costs of proposed system Change: it is possible that managers and top management may resist the change/transition from a paper based system to a technical system. The current system, though not ideal sets comfortably with current management. A management paradigm shift is required. Training: the system users will require some short initial training to understand the use of the software and technology in general. Although the Operations Manager Mr. Talha Awan is well versed with computer software and hardware, there will still be a slight lag due to training. Initial investment: although a small amount, roughly Rs. 150,000 will need to be diverted for a project that has no immediate monetary returns. Software support: although a helpline for customer support exists, it can become cumbersome to ask for guidance incase of software failure or confusion. Hardware failure: at the mercy of KESC and the elements, the computer hardware may fail thereby causing confusion and a stop in information flow. Although an uninterrupted power supply may be purchased, as well as a warranty plan, it will only add up in costs and delays. Internet failure: from time to time, the internet service provider may fail to provide a 100% uptime. This can cause delays and lags in the system. Industry Standard Bar B Q Tonight Inventory Management System To further add value to this report, I studied Bar B Q Tonights current inventory management setup which is computerized. Information was gathered through telephonic interviews and e-mail exchange with the Operations Managers, Sardar Ishaq and Mr. Abur Rehman. The findings are compiled below. Bar B Q Tonight is one of Karachis most famous restaurants that came into being in 1988. It prepares all kinds of cuisine that caters to thousands of customers on a daily basis. In-fact the multi storeyed establishment can house upto a thousand customers at a time. The restaurant has enjoyed high growth levels consistent with every year. Recently a branch has been erected in Lahore. Chicken, Beef, Fish, vegetables, pastas, fruit, ice cream, mushrooms, sausages, cheese, beverages and tissue rolls are just a small list of the inventory that are in storage and continuous use at the restaurant. These are key inputs needed to give customers a full service and experience backed by quality that the restaurant promises. To ensure proper delivery of storage, roughly 500 employees and 2 dozen management level officers are part of the work force. The availability of sufficient inventory and especially at the right time is perhaps the single most crucial factor at the restaurant. Insufficient inventory levels can result in a loss of potential sales. Furthermore due to the sheer quantity of inventory that enters and exits the building, checks and balances, control and proper monitoring of stock are required. This serves a number of functions such as quality control, waste management and theft protection. The current supply chain is as follows: SUPPLIER à ¯Ã†â€™Ã‚   DRY/COLD STORAGE à ¯Ã†â€™Ã‚   CUTTING/PROCESSING à ¯Ã†â€™Ã‚   RELEVANT FOOD DEPARTMENT à ¯Ã†â€™Ã‚   CUSTOMER The suppliers supply meat, chicken, tinned items, cold drinks, eggs, vegetables and basically all the inputs needed. Once the orders are received, they go into processing/cleaning/cutting/batching dependin Analysis of E-Commerce and Supply Chain for Silver Spoon Analysis of E-Commerce and Supply Chain for Silver Spoon Silver Spoon Snacks is a fast food eatery established first in Gulshan in the year 1965. It has expanded to a second branch in Tariq road. During its heyday it revolutionized the fast food industry by introducing the concept of à ¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ã‹Å"rolls on the menu. It enjoyed this untapped market till competitors jumped on the band wagon. The menu is diverse, including Pakistani, Chinese, Continental, Western and Indian items. There is plenty of consumer traffic in both branches especially during the evening. The Tariq Road branch serves all kinds of BBQ items, club sandwich, zinger burger and the well known rolls. The restaurant is owned and operated by a family. The branch managers are actually brothers and share shifts during the day and night. There are a total of 4 active brothers that are responsible for handling the day to day running and operations of the system. Key purchase decisions, menu expansion and supply chain decisions are handled solely by them. They have been following a paper based system since its inception. All the accounting work and record keeping is done manually in registers that are stocked at the residence every month. Literature Review According to Laudon and Laudon (Information Systems and Decision making, 2000), the supply chain is a collection of physical entities linked together into processes that supply goods or services from source through consumption. The supply chain consists of suppliers, manufacturers, wholesalers, distributors, retail outlets, logistics and consumers. This list also includes those activities that are necessary in facilitating the supply chain. Managing a supply chain is a difficult task that requires keen insight and understanding of the business processes and the environment in which it operates. The struggle is to create a network which has no weak links in terms of time delays, information gaps or inefficiencies in other words, all processes must be integrated. This is best achieved by the creation of networks with a smooth inflow and outflow of relevant information. This is the heart of e-commerce. The internet has allowed the growth of e-businesses across borders and physical limits. The use of an intranet is greatly appreciated within a company. Based on internet technology, the intranet is used primarily within a single company which allows the internal users to expand and share information across floors and walls. These locations may be domestic or may even be throughout the world (Bartoo, Elliot, and Naik-lyer, 2000). E Commerce is one of the most important facets of the internet to have developed in this day and age. Ecommerce, sometimes referred to as E Business, involves carrying out business over the Internet with the use of computers that are linked to each other forming a network. E-commerce includes the buying, selling, marketing, and servicing of goods or services through telecommunication technologies. E-Business, on the other hand, carries a broader definition, not just the buying and selling of goods and services, but servicing customers, collaborating with business partners, and conducting communications and transactions within and outside an organization. (Electronic Commerce a managerial perspective by Efrahim Turban, David King, Prentice Hall; US Ed edition October, 1999) According to ComScore a marketing research company that provides marketing data and services to many of the Internets largest businesses, E-commerce has had its first $1B day on 2nd December 2010. The heaviest online spending day in history and the first to surpass the billion-dollar threshold, declares ComScore. This goes to show how far and wide the scope of electronic buying and selling has reached. It is revolutionized the way business models are created and defined numerous opportunities for entrepreneurs and the like. E- Commerce can help a supply chain over the internet in areas such as placing and receiving orders, providing product information, tracking orders, filling and managing inventory, and recording inflows and outflows (Sunil Chopra and Jan A, Van Mieghem, Supply Chain Management Review, April 200) A critical area where e-commerce has established its presence in a supply chain is in the resource planning and inventory management function of an organization. It helps users track the inventory and where it is distributed from the organization. It helps plan for future forecasts and deal with shortages. It creates a hub where information is shared among relevant members of a business model; this is known as EDI Electronic Data Interchange. Similarly ERP (Enterprise Resource Planning) systems have emerged that serve similar functions in terms of smooth data flow between members of an organization. Relevant information relating to key business functions is then shared, matched and cross matched between departments and related companies that have partnered with the business. The goal is to streamline operations and produce a cost and time efficient process altogether. IBM and Siemens are 2 prime examples of organizations that heavily rely on supply chain applications produced by business management software such as SAP. This application has streamlined its processes thereby creating a real-time and efficient business model. Inventory management models are heavily used in large scale organizations in the fast food industry. Giant franchises such as Subway, KFC and Pizza Hut use business intelligence software for its operations. Zap is a leading software house that creates web based packages for KFC and Pizza Hut. As a starting point, a basic open source inventory management software coupled with internet technologies is an ideal way for a small to mid-sized business to start. The diagram below shows how e-commerce can efficiently distribute and coordinate the flow of information between the entities and business functions of the supply chain. The importance of information sharing and interchange is crucial to improve operational effectiveness. Research methodology Secondary research Secondary research consisted of going through research articles and existing information on e-commerce and supply chain models. Text books, class lectures and the internet served as sources for secondary research. This type of research was necessary to gain an understanding of existing supply chain models that are benefitting with the integration of e-ecommerce and its technologies. Primary research This is first hand research that needed to be conducted to gain an understanding of Silver Spoon Snacks This form of research was conducted over 2 face to face interviews and short telephone calls with the Branch Manager and Operations Manager A set of questions were asked to understand the existing supply chain model and how operations are carried out on a daily and weekly basis These questions also attempted to surface any inefficiencies and weaknesses that exist in the current setup Interviews were necessary to collect direct and relevant information from the involved people Data Analysis Input details pertaining to the Tariq Road branch Raw material listing Chicken Beef Mutton Flour Vegetables Ketchup/mustard Seasonings Equipment used Oven Fryer Coal Freezers Stove Tables and chairs Utilities used Electricity Gas Telephone Water Labour employed Head Chef Kitchen staff Head Waiter Waiters Cleaners Watchman For simplicity, the supply chain of chicken as a key and widely used ingredient will be studied throughout this report. Supply Chain system of Silver Spoon Snacks explained with the help of a flow chart. Supply Chain Defined Chicken Butcher Thursday morning or earlier depending on needs, the Chicken supplier receives an order of Boneless Chicken and Tikka pieces for the week. This order is placed via telephone by the branch manager. The quantity for chicken in Tikka and Boneless variation is verbally specified via telephone. The supplier confirms the order and a delivery time is specified. The butcher cuts the chicken according to pieces specified either Tikka pieces or Boneless for Chicken rolls. Delivery vehicle As per initial agreement between Silver Spoon and the supplier, the chicken supply will be delivered to the warehouse in the suppliers vehicle. This is part of the negotiation. The supplier will have the chicken delivered to the warehouse and settle the payment at the end of the month. Warehouse The warehouse is owned and operated by Silver Spoon owners. It has been part of the business model since 40 years and is situated off Tariq road near the Tariq road branch. The warehouse serves as a sorting point most of the raw materials. Individual branch demand is catered to and planned here. The warehouse has a large kitchen and a storage bay. Warehouse kitchen The warehouse kitchen department is responsible for all the cleaning and preparation of the raw food. This entails cleaning the chicken, removing the fat and making it hygienic and fit for cooking. Staff is employed in this department to manage the cleaning. Warehouse storage After the chicken has been cleaned, it goes into cold storage. The amount which has to be distributed to the branches on a daily basis is dispatched and the rest goes into freezers. The amount is determined in advance by branch managers. Keep in mind that a weeks supply is available for both branches at the warehouse. Official vehicle A Suzuki Pickup is on standby at the warehouse and the workers load a days worth of chicken and transport it to the both branches. 60% of the chicken goes to the Tariq Road Branch as its chicken utilization is the highest. Tariq road branch At the Tariq Road branch, the official vehicle arrives shortly with the chicken for the day. This chicken thawed, cleaned and semi marinated at the individual branches before it is ready to be finally added with the secret spices and recipes. It is immediately transported by the workers to the freezer. Kitchen + freezer As noon approaches a portion of the boneless chicken is removed from the freezer and brought to the preparation room. Here the chicken is added with seasoning, sauce and the secret spices which are made early during the day. This preparation is done by the head chef. The boneless chicken goes to the Roll preparation area and the Tikka pieces go to the BBQ area where they are cooked. Customer Once cooked, the Rolls and Tikkas are served to customers Planning system For the sake of simplicity we will go through a typical week of ordering chicken to get a grasp of the current supply system at the Tariq Road branch. This boneless chicken is used for Chicken Rolls and Chicken Boti. Whereas full chickens are used to create 4 Tikka pieces per chicken. Demand for the week is established by looking at previous trends. Basically a base demand for consumption has been established for boneless chicken of 210 kg per week. The base demand of 210kg worth of boneless chicken is always used for Rolls and Chicken Boti. On an average, 220-250kgs of boneless chicken is purchased as demand from consumers never dips below 210kg per week. For Tikkas, the base demand is 80 Tikkas per day, which makes it 560 Tikkas on an average per week. A full chicken is able to provide 4 Tikka pieces. The key considerations that determine and influence demand for chicken are: Stage of the week Friday, Saturday and Sunday are days where demand for boneless chicken is at its highest. During these days the public goes out to eat with family. Public holidays the restaurant operates during public holidays. During these days of the calendar, families choose to visit eateries and therefore the consumption of boneless chicken is high. City turmoil during expected city turmoil and expected strikes, the public operates at an accelerated pace and attempts to get things out of the way. This may entail visiting Tariq Road for work 1-2 days before the expected turmoil or unrest. Furthermore, consumption of boneless chicken falls during the days of turmoil, hence purchasing is planned accordingly. Level of commercial activity Tariq Road is heavily populated with shops and vendors. If the activity in malls and shopping strips is high, then demand for food, especially Chicken Rolls is also high as it serves the fast food concept and is economical. The factors above have the capacity to influence demand for chicken and hence the purchasing patterns vary. Chicken that is not used is then stored in freezers for next days use. This chicken is bought on Thursdays of the week from a vendor that has been partnered with the business. An order is placed via telephone on Thursday morning by the Branch Manager and it arrives by noon. If for some reason demand is abnormally high, the regular chicken supplier is contacted and is urged to make an emergency drop to the warehouse. If he is unable to do so from his own inventory, then he is responsible for making other arrangements. Supplier selection A chicken supplier is selected on the basis of: Total cost Cleaning and cutting Cost is the most important factor that ultimately determines which supplier/butcher to choose from. Silver Spoon negotiates on the basis of the foremost is cost (low or discounted price), quality, and delivery service. Secondly, it is favourable if the supplier can clean and cut the chicken into pieces at his outlet before delivering it to the Silver Spoon warehouse. Although Silver Spoon has a chicken slaughtering and cleaning/cutting facility, but is used for only further cleaning of the chicken and cutting for marinating purposes. Financial costs pertaining to Tariq Road Branch Cost for chicken: this rate is Rs. 4 per kilo less than the prevailing marketing rate. The chicken suppliers set the price every Thursday of the week. Price of chicken per kilo varies on a weekly basis and is determined by the laws of demand and supply. For example, if chicken is in excess supply then the price falls. Conversely if there is high demand then the price rises such as on weekends. Due to this the chicken suppliers set their prices on Thursday. The Tariq Road branch bears 60% of the total cost of the chicken whereas the Gulshan branch, only 40%. Consumption and sale of chicken items is the highest at the Tariq Road branch. The basis for making profits for Tikkas is to earn Rs. 20-25 profit per Tikka. Utilities Electricity Bill: varies between Rs. 50,000 to 60,000 per month. Gas Bill: varies between Rs. 10,000 to 12,000 per month Telephone Bill: Rs. 1,000 per month on an average Coal Usage: worth Rs. 1,500 on a daily basis.    Labour Employed Waiter: The starting salary per waiter is Rs. 6000 per month. Senior waiters (determined by length of employment) are paid Rs. 8000 per month. There are a total of 8 senior waiters (8 x 8000 = Rs. 64,000 per month) and 6 junior waiters (6 x 6000 = Rs. 36,000 per month). Kitchen Staff: these employees include assistants to the chef (3 assistants), and additional workers who produce other items on the menu (5 kitchen workers). They are assigned various tasks in the kitchen to add value to the system. On an average, the total labour costs assigned to the kitchen staff are Rs. 75,000 Head chef: There is 1 head Chef who is paid Rs. 12,000 per month. Total labour costs per month = Rs 64,000 + Rs 36,000 + Rs. 65,000 + 12,000 = Rs 187,000 Discussion Inefficiencies or weaknesses in the supply chain Supplier/butcher: Silver Spoon has had the same supplier for chicken for nearly 20 years. They should search the market for other suppliers that can offer competitive rates for bulk purchases of chicken. The order is placed on the phone and a Silver Spoon official does not personally monitor the chicken selection, which means an old chicken or unhealthy chicken can be part of the mix Warehouse: At the warehouse, the supplier delivery vehicle drops off the chicken and drives away after collecting the payment. There is no check here, no one counts the chicken or weighs it upon arrival so there is no way of making sure if they received the amount they paid for. There is no record system or inventory management. The chicken is not à ¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ã‹Å"logged in, just immediately shifted to the kitchen where it is cleaned for use. Therefore there is no actual account or record for the amount of chicken that entered the facility nor is there any receiving slip or receipt. Warehouse Storage: Once the chicken is cleaned and processed fit for use, it goes into storage freezers and only the days worth is kept outside for delivery. However, there is no one who counts the number of chicken breasts or legs, or kilograms of chicken that goes into the freezer. So there is no check or monitor system. Silver Spoon Snacks Vehicle The days worth of chicken is transported to the Tariq Road Branch, but there is no formal record of the amount that leaves the warehouse, nor is there any receiving document from the branches end. Branch Again, there is no counter checking or counting system of the chicken that arrives in the branch. It is blindly kept in the freezer. Customer The customer does not receive an electronic receipt. Which means that there is no formal record at Silver Spoons counter of the items sold and the cash received. There is an informal scribble in a worn out register. Other deficiencies with the current setup Marketing: There are limited marketing efforts carried out by the restaurant. At most, marketing involves re-doing the company banner or releasing a dozen flyers in the area. No website exists. Recording: It is a complete paper based system with not a computer or digital device in sight. Records are loosely maintained at the warehouse and branch in registers and journals. There is no formal record keeping system. Customers are not given receipts therefore there is no cross checking. Tracking: there is no way for Silver Spoon Snacks to forecast demand judging by trends, as figures and statistics for trends do not exist. Paper based: it is a paper based system with information regarding transactions loosely recorded in registers. Checks and balances: checks and balances do not exist, there is no tangible record keeping when it comes to inventory and purchases. It is not possible to confirm orders with suppliers and inter branch as orders are verbally given. There is no proof. Proposed system The proposed system involves the purchase of computer hardware and the use of an internet connection. The idea is to create a basic centralized system at the warehouse as the server with 2 additional linked systems at the branches. The purpose is to track and record inventory that moves into the warehouse and out to the branches. A real time system is proposed where inventory levels are monitored by the hour. The systems will need to be linked by an internet connection to provide a real time feed of information between the branches and warehouse. With an inventory management and tracking software, the loopholes and loose-ends in the current system will be neutralized. How it works Once the systems have been installed and made operational, the current stock, inventory and work in progress are uploaded to the servers. The software will be used be the warehouse, and both the branches. Each user will update the records from their end so it can be seen at the warehouse server. The software will have section for the warehouse, branch A and branch B. Depending on the fresh demand levels, the warehouse determines the quantity of chicken needed and sends an order via telephone to the butcher. Had the butcher/supplier been using a computer system (example Makro), then an email would have been dispatched instead. The quantity ordered is punched into the system and falls under the status of pending. The rate per kilo is noted. Order time is also noted. Once the stock of chicken arrives at the warehouse, its exact quantity is manually counted and weighed by an employee and then the numbers are punched into the warehouse server. This will cross check the amount ordered with the amount received. Once the figures tally, a receiving slip is generated electronically and printed after the order has been confirmed and accounted for. A slip is generated and given to the supplier and a formal record now exists in the system. A notification is sent in a matter of seconds to both branches informing them of the added inventory levels. The levels now appear on the screens of both branch A and B (Tariq road and Gulshan). Preparations are made. Depending on the opening inventory and the base level demand of 210kg of chicken and 80 Tikka pieces, each branch sends its required amount of chicken (bonless and Tikka pieces) through the softwares built in messaging system. Each transaction and order is then recorded. After the warehouse server acknowledges receipt of the order from the branch, it then forwards it verbally to the warehouse freezer where the employee loads the Silver Spoon vehicle (Suzuki pickup). The vehicle then travels to the relevant branch. A printed slip is dispatched. From the warehouse, the inventory levels are then reduced and this is also reflected in each branches terminal. Once the vehicle is unloaded at the branch, a branch employee manually supervises the unloading and stocking of the chicken in the freezer. Once confirmed and signed, the branch manager then updates his terminal with the added inventory of chicken. Back at the warehouse, the reduction in inventory is equal to the gain in inventory at both branches. As the day goes by and the orders accumulate and dispatch, the inventory levels are monitored not only at the branch, but at the warehouse as well. Each chicken Tikka order placed or each chicken roll uses a certain portion of the inventory. And once the orders are fed and updated in the Silver Spoon register, the chicken based inventory is automatically deducted. Towards the end of the day, the ending inventory is tallied and counted. The warehouse manager reads these inventories on an hourly basis and incase of a shortage dispatches a vehicle to make up for the shortfall. The cycle is then repeated every day depending on the closing inventory levels. Notes on the proposed system The recommended software for Silver Spoon Snacks is inFlow Inventory management software (http://www.inflowinventory.com/). The software is easy to use and does not require extensive training. A simple understanding of images, inputting data and confirming orders is all it takes. Free software exists, but does not provide security, reliability and expansion as inFlows suite. Each terminal is given a unique pin code which only the operator is aware of. This means only the relevant person in charge can use the terminal which is a security check as well as a confirmation. Each transaction is logged and stored in a log file sent to the warehouse computer. Backups are made on a daily basis Financial Costs involved with this system Software: although many free software packages exist, inFlow Inventory Management provides the best balance between features and cost. To create a multi user network (ideal in this case), the license cost $299 per computer for lifetime use. 3 licenses will be needed. $299 x 3 = $897 = ~ Rs. 75000 (@ Rs. 84 per U.S Dollar) Hardware needed: processor, motherboard, RAM, hard drive, casing, power supply, monitor. Based on the software requirements, the hardware cost is as follows: Tariq Road Branch cost: Rs 23,000 Gulshan Branch cost : Rs 23,000 Warehouse cost: Rs. 27,000 Total : Rs. 73,000 Internet connection: 3 connections Initial setup cost : Rs. 800 x 3 Monthly cost: Rs. 1000 x 3 Total initial investment: Rs. 75,000 (3 licenses) + (73,000 (hardware) + 2,400 (internet setup) + 3000 (first month internet payment) = Rs. 153,400 Benefits of the proposed system Accountability: first and foremost, the new system will hold each branch accountable for what it has received in its inventory. Once its handed over the inventory, it is held accountable for its storage, sales and payment. The sales of the branch should match the inventory received. Inventory control: from the moment the chicken supply reaches the warehouse, it will be tracked and accounted for. The system will make sure that there is adequate supply at all branches at all times so as to not lose out on potential sales Economic order quantity: the ideal quantity of chicken to order each week and the ideal quantity to store in the freezers can be calculated based on demand and supply conditions. Inventory planning is thereby improved. Accuracy: with figures, statistics and numbers well accounted for and cross references, the books of Silver Spoon will present and accurate picture of state of affairs. A reduction in human error in terms of calculations, counting and so on will also be witnessed. Record keeping: instead of scribbling in registers and writing journals, an electronic system with constant updates is hence created with the use of e-commerce technologies. Past transactions, exchanges, buying and selling are stored electronically thereby staying safe. The option to print out the records exists, thereby creating tangible records. Electronic Data Interchange: Information sharing between branches and the warehouse will be more convenient as real time updates and inventory levels can be monitored. Offers and promotional schemes by suppliers can also be entertained. Expansion: This inventory monitoring and management system is not just limited to chicken; it can be used for the entire product line, mutton, beef, vegetables, cold drinks, seasoning, flour and so on. The scope is limitless with unlimited suppliers and customers. Improved Customer Service and loyalty: when a customer always gets his or her desired order in desired quantity, it creates customer satisfaction and creates repeat customers. It improves loyalty as well. A computerized receipt also creates a positive impression on the customers. Reduce stock-outs and overstocks: with supply synchronized with demand, the chances of ending up with à ¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ã‹Å"expired inventory or facing shortages are greatly reduced. Shortages are prevented as inventory as planned well in advance, and in the same way excess inventory is also reducing thereby curbing inventory carrying costs. Ready alerts: if the inventory dips below a certain level at a branch, an automatically generated alert is sent to the warehouse or Gulshan branch and inventory can be moved around. Furthermore this will act as an early warning sign to the warehouse to acquire more inventory. Meeting demand: demand is almost always met unless outside forces have some play. With inventory always available due to a tracking and trend analysis system, sales will always be met. Forecasting: due to its ability to track charts and record daily transactions, the stored information can be used to conduct trend analysis for certain times of the calendar year. This will allow better planning for inventory and sales. Website: Silver Spoon Snacks Pvt. Ltd. can go on-line and have a web presence. This on its own is a marketing tool Networking: since Silver Spoon is now on-line and has a presence on the world wide web, it will be able to reach out to suppliers and customers on a larger scale. It is a ready marketing tool. It can partner with other restaurants, sponsors, FMCGs and causes. Marketing: with the use of e-commerce technologies, Silver Spoon Snacks can expand its marketing operations by sending out e-mails and creating ad banners and partnering with other websites. Costs of proposed system Change: it is possible that managers and top management may resist the change/transition from a paper based system to a technical system. The current system, though not ideal sets comfortably with current management. A management paradigm shift is required. Training: the system users will require some short initial training to understand the use of the software and technology in general. Although the Operations Manager Mr. Talha Awan is well versed with computer software and hardware, there will still be a slight lag due to training. Initial investment: although a small amount, roughly Rs. 150,000 will need to be diverted for a project that has no immediate monetary returns. Software support: although a helpline for customer support exists, it can become cumbersome to ask for guidance incase of software failure or confusion. Hardware failure: at the mercy of KESC and the elements, the computer hardware may fail thereby causing confusion and a stop in information flow. Although an uninterrupted power supply may be purchased, as well as a warranty plan, it will only add up in costs and delays. Internet failure: from time to time, the internet service provider may fail to provide a 100% uptime. This can cause delays and lags in the system. Industry Standard Bar B Q Tonight Inventory Management System To further add value to this report, I studied Bar B Q Tonights current inventory management setup which is computerized. Information was gathered through telephonic interviews and e-mail exchange with the Operations Managers, Sardar Ishaq and Mr. Abur Rehman. The findings are compiled below. Bar B Q Tonight is one of Karachis most famous restaurants that came into being in 1988. It prepares all kinds of cuisine that caters to thousands of customers on a daily basis. In-fact the multi storeyed establishment can house upto a thousand customers at a time. The restaurant has enjoyed high growth levels consistent with every year. Recently a branch has been erected in Lahore. Chicken, Beef, Fish, vegetables, pastas, fruit, ice cream, mushrooms, sausages, cheese, beverages and tissue rolls are just a small list of the inventory that are in storage and continuous use at the restaurant. These are key inputs needed to give customers a full service and experience backed by quality that the restaurant promises. To ensure proper delivery of storage, roughly 500 employees and 2 dozen management level officers are part of the work force. The availability of sufficient inventory and especially at the right time is perhaps the single most crucial factor at the restaurant. Insufficient inventory levels can result in a loss of potential sales. Furthermore due to the sheer quantity of inventory that enters and exits the building, checks and balances, control and proper monitoring of stock are required. This serves a number of functions such as quality control, waste management and theft protection. The current supply chain is as follows: SUPPLIER à ¯Ã†â€™Ã‚   DRY/COLD STORAGE à ¯Ã†â€™Ã‚   CUTTING/PROCESSING à ¯Ã†â€™Ã‚   RELEVANT FOOD DEPARTMENT à ¯Ã†â€™Ã‚   CUSTOMER The suppliers supply meat, chicken, tinned items, cold drinks, eggs, vegetables and basically all the inputs needed. Once the orders are received, they go into processing/cleaning/cutting/batching dependin

Friday, October 25, 2019

Friendship in The Pact :: The Pact Relationships Essays

Friendship in The Pact Friendship is a huge part of everyone's life, whether they know it or not. In some way shape or form everyone needs relationships. In the book The Pact, friendship is huge. Three boys George, Sam, and Rameck become best friends and you could say that they save each others lives. Not physically but in a sense that without the pact they made there lives might not be where they are today. I can relate this book to a very good friend of mine that got caught up in a bad situation. I’ll use the name â€Å"Bob†. We live in the small town of Cape May, NJ and everyone knows everyone. Not always the best situation for people like Bob. He and I became friends before any of these awful things started to happen. Bob got caught up in the wrong crowd one summer and begandealing cocaine. At the time I was un- aware of this. I began to notice a change in him around the middle of the summer, I asked him if there was anything wrong or if I could do anything for him. Bob wouldn’t tell me what was going on, he said, â€Å"I don’t want to hurt you.† With this statement, â€Å"I don’t want to hurt you.† I immediately knew that something was seriously wrong. At the time I didn’t know what, but I was going to find out. So I started snooping around, and I did my own investigation. Some may say that it was me being nosy, but I know that I’m sure glad I was. It’s a good thing I did too. In my snooping around I found out that Bob was dealing cocaine. It was at this time that I realized Bob’s situation was real, and I would have to do something about it. I thought Bob simply needed to get away from where he knew everyone, and drugs were so easily accessible. Bob and I then sat down to talk. This was not easy for me to do and I’m sure it wasn’t easy for him to hear. I mean, picture someone you think of as a little sister sitting you down and saying, â€Å"Bob, I know all about you dealing cocaine.† It takes a lot to stand up to your friends, but it takes a lot more to just sit and watch their lives go down the drain.

Thursday, October 24, 2019

Clover Valley Dairy Case Study Essay

May 17, 2014 To: Charles Krieger – President/ Clover Valley Dairy Dear Charles, I am writing you in response to your concern regarding a market test of the new 6 oz. cups and multi-pack yogurt carriers that Clover Valley Dairy would like to introduce to our customers. The purpose of the research project will be to see if the new type of packaging for yogurt will be worth the change and if our consumers are accepting of the new change. It will tell us if our new six-cup carrier is effective or not. I feel the new type of carrier should be tested in non-competing areas. However, it should also be tested in our market as well as our competitor’s market. A key part in testing this new product and/or design should begin with our competitor’s in mind. Knowing what our competitor’s offer and how well it is being accepted by the consumer should be the determining factor in our decision for a test. Knowing our market and what it offers will give us an idea of how our customers will be impacted. This also will let us know why we should consider our competitor’s and non-competitor’s customer views, for comparison. By not doing so, we may hinder our ability to find out what will and what won’t really sell. I suggest that we limit our test to one competitor only. This will allow us to have more money in our budget but also allow us to get the information that we need. If testing is necessary, what would be the criteria for success or failure? It is my belief that the main point to stress would be to show how sales are impacted. Many times sales can be increased simply by the look of a package for an item. If the packaging of a new item/product is well presented, often times the customer will purchase the item/product simply because of its appearance. Many surveys have been done about the appearance of a product by targeting a certain type of consumer, namely women. These surveys have shown that if an item/product is targeted toward women and the  packaging appealed to them, they would most likely purchase the product. This type of information will be helpful for us to define our target market as I feel we should try to have our product to appeal to children and especially their mothers. Our sales results of the 6 oz. and 8 oz. yogurt cups have steadily increased every year, so I believe that the 6 oz. individual serving cups combined with the new 6-cup yogurt carrier can help to increase our sales even more. Also, I believe the convenience of our new carrier can help to increase our sales within the limited market share area(s) that we have. There are four important factors that we need to look at in determining the success or failure of our new product test. The first factor we need to consider is cost. Cost is always a large part of buying a new product. We can lower the cost of our testing if we limit ourselves to comparing with only one competitor. The second factor is going to be market share. If we can satisfy our customer’s wants and needs we can increase our market share as a result. The third factor would be handling. If a package is easy to handle, in other words, open and close, we will certainly have more success. I believe that this can best be achieved by combining the 6 oz. individual yogurt cups into a 6-pack carrier container. The fourth factor in determining our success is reuse. Is our product recyclable? We are in the age of â€Å"Green† technology so it is important for us to make our product easy to recycle. If we make our product/package out of plastic for the individual container and aluminum foil as the cover of the individual yogurt, we can lower our costs considerably. I also wanted to discuss how useful this market test will be in addressing a management problem. Are there changes that can be made so that we don’t make mistakes from the management side or production side? I say that we can! Again, we need to make our individual yogurt cups out of recyclable plastic and the cover is to be made from aluminum so as to reduce the costs of production. The new multi-pack carrier will also make it easier for customers to take home, and help to eliminate packaging costs. Management will need to work together as a team, delegating the tasks accordingly to the production team(s). I would concur with your idea of  conducting on-site surveys to determine acceptance of our new product. Success will come with a team effort standing behind this product testing process. Everyone’s opinion will make a difference, diversified, and successful test. It will also be beneficial as it will help to increase sales and identify mistakes that may have been overlooked. This entire process will also allow our employees to express their creativity and give them a chance to contribute to the success of our company. The last item I would like to present is the evaluation of cost and/or the value of this type of research. Evaluation costs do not need to be expensive. A rule of thumb is to estimate approximately somewhere between five and ten percent of our total budget. This can include time that the staff has spent on the evaluation and out of pocket expenses/costs. We can save on the cost of the evaluation if we focus our questions to only what we need and what we would like to know. I have set up a cost structure for this evaluation as follows; 1. Salary and benefits for staff involved 2. Funds for an outside evaluator 3. Travel expenses/costs 4. Communication tools (surveys, stamps, telephone, etc.) 5. Printing of reports and questionnaires 6. Supplies and equipment (computers, cartridges, etc.) I will start on this immediately once I receive your approval for this market test. I believe this marketing strategy will be a huge success for our company to grow and increase our sales. I also believe this will help us to build our reputation within the industry. Our company team will be strengthened and we will be able to build long lasting relationships with our competitor’s. I would like to thank you for understanding and helping to direct our company to succeed! Sincerely Vince Roth – General Manager/Clover Valley Dairy Company

Wednesday, October 23, 2019

Dale Chihuly Essay

Dale Chihuly has been deemed a visionary for his indelible mark left on the art of glass-blowing over the course of his 40-plus-year career. Born in Tacoma, Washington, in 1941, he is often credited with moving blown glass from craft into the domain of high fine art. Though he refuses to categorize himself as such, he is a visionary of light, form and color. His Seattle based studio known as the â€Å"hot shop,† is where you can view demonstrations of his visions being created. Chihuly’s signature styles consist of baskets, orbs, sea forms, chandeliers and pointy icicle towers that range in size and color. You can view them in the lobby of the Bellagio Hotel in Las Vegas or any one of the two hundred museums where his work resides. In 1976, while visiting in England, Chihuly was driving to visit a friend of his when he was struck by another car and went through the windshield. The glass from the windshield blinded him in his left eye and now, subsequently wears an eye p atch covering that eye. He has lost his depth perception and has no peripheral vision on his left side. Looking at the world through one eye automatically â€Å"flattens the scene,† said Margaret S. Livingstone, an expert on vision and the brain at Harvard Medical School. So how does a 3D glass-blowing sculpture artist continue to create such magnificent works? Instead of holding him back the accident changed the way Chihuly executed his art and shared it with others. After the accident, Chihuly no longer felt safe manipulating molten glass, so a gaffer (as glass-blowers are called), took over the hands-on work and Chihuly expanded his team into something of an army. â€Å"I’ve often wondered what the lack of depth perception, what it does for me, because it’s truly difficult to know where things are in space without two eyes. But somehow I think it’s probably made me see things differently, and probably made my work different than somebody else’s.† (Chihuly) Chihul y’s team consists of about 90 people. Chihuly choreographs all of them, from glass-blowers, facilitators, shippers, packers, architects and engineers. All of his pieces start with his vision. His team is then responsible for accurately translating his vast vision into awe-inspiring, three-dimensional forms fit for museums, galleries, hotels and public gardens all around the world. He approaches each new project essentially the same way. â€Å"I do site visits and get a sense of the space and see how the art work will interact with the environment.† (Chihuly) â€Å"Each project whether it’s an exhibition or private commission begins with a vision, which I interpret into drawings and then work with my team to execute.† (Chihuly) The process is long, especially if the finished product is composed of many small parts, or intended for a large outdoor installation. After Chihuly completes a drawing, each piece must be blown individually. This is when Chihuly often compares himself to a conductor or film director. â€Å"That’s what a coach does; he gets a group of people moving in the same direction with a common goal, but the vision is his.† (Chihuly) â€Å"I like working with a team because one, you can do so much more in the way of being influenced. The more creative they are, the more creative I am.† (Chihuly) â€Å"I like to work fast and quick; glass-blowing is a spontaneous medium.† (Chihuly) Through drawings and paintings, Chihuly continues to help his team see what he sees. He responds to what he sees and feels to develop forms and make variations on these forms. He is often heard directing his team, â€Å"make it bigger, make it taller, make it fatter.† (Chihuly) His sources of inspiration are hard for him to define, â€Å"I have never been good at explaining where my inspiration comes from. It comes from everywhere, from everything, from all things at all times.† (Chihuly) When each piece is finished, they are then collected and assembled into one cohesive sculpture. His close knit team is crucial to his success and Chihuly acknowledges that. â€Å"I work with different people in different ways, and at the end of the day, I feel extremely lucky that I have an immense team.† (Chihuly) Nine years ago, the Museum of Fine Art in Boston, began its collaboration with Perkins School for the Blind, establishing a program where teenagers from the school visit the museum for â€Å"Feeling the Form† tours about every three weeks. Dale Chihuly volunteers his time and pieces for multiple demonstrations here as well as other select locations. Chihuly who himself is visually handicap describes his â€Å"Through the Looking Glass† blown glass sculpture and explains through his interpretation, how he and his massive team create each piece. Chihuly hands students pieces of the blown-glass sculptures, chandeliers, baskets and sea form objec ts, so they can understand the shape and feel their form. Wildly vibrant color is Chihuly’s signature, but when he hands one student a piece he described it as cobalt blue glass, she reminded him, â€Å"I don’t know what color is.† He found another way to describe the deep hue. Another student with low vision was fascinated by a literal boatload of brightly colored glass. â€Å"I love the boat with all the colors in one place, mixed together, so you almost can’t tell the shapes apart,† he said. â€Å"Touching the sculptures gave me an image in my mind of what it looks like,† one student explained. â€Å"It lets me paint a picture in my brain.† Chihuly goes on to describe the ridges some of the students feel on the glass pieces, â€Å"This one has been blown into an optical mold, so the optical mold makes ridges on the glass, it kind of makes the edge going around, undulating like scallops.† (Chihuly) There is a whole visual world that our students are not connected to, at least not in exactly the same way as people with sight,† says Perkins Secondary School art teacher Bruce Blakeslee. â€Å"Our fingers can show us details our eyes miss, and ‘Feeling the Form’ gives our students stories, content, and context that even sighted visitors might not get.† (Blakeslee) Students were eager to explore the Chihuly glass artworks through touch and explanation. â€Å"Art is like a room with many different doors. Our students may not enter it through the same door as others do, but we’re all in the same room.† (Blakeslee) In conclusion, not only is Dale Chihuly a master at the art of blown-glass sculpture, but he has become a master at conveying his vision to his team and continues to produce beautiful and colorful forms of art. Through the loss of sight in his left eye, Chihuly has gained a new perspective on form and color. He enriches the lives of visually disabled individuals through his own unique perspective.

Tuesday, October 22, 2019

just wait Essay

just wait Essay just wait Essay Just Wait So many of our young children are having babies when they’re just babies themselves. Teenagers do not realize the consequences of bringing a life into this world. There are so many responsibilities and hardships to having a baby that our young people do not realize till it’s too late. Television and social media make having a baby look fun and easy, but in reality there is much more to it. They do not reveal the night time awakenings, crying, cleaning duties, and all the other difficult duties that come with having a baby. Sure babies are cute and lovable, but they are defiantly a responsibility for adulthood. Children’s small bodies are just not equipped to birth a child when they are that young. There body is not done growing and it is just not healthy to put your body through such trauma. Women’s hips are not spread and her body is not developed enough to birth a child. In 2011 329, 797 babies were born from children; live births in America ha ve gone down 8 percent from 2010. Only 50 percent of teen moms finish high school, and 90 percent of teens under 16 years will not finish. Teen parents are also less likely to go to college which decreases their job rates and makes your income low. You cannot give your baby all you want to give when you’re not financially stable, it is more logic to wait and become stable before adding an extreme expense to your budget. Fathers of babies are less likely to be involved as a teen. Boys maturity level is much lower than girls, and they are not forced to stay and carry the baby like the girls. So not only do teen moms have to raise a child and take on a huge

Monday, October 21, 2019

Portray Cleopatra Essay Example

Portray Cleopatra Essay Example Portray Cleopatra Paper Portray Cleopatra Paper In Act 2 Scene 2, Enobarbus describes the first meeting between Antony and Cleopatra on the Nile, in all its glory. Enobarbus, a typically blunt solider uses poetic language in describing Cleopatra’s appearance, showing the effect that the Egypt Queen has on men, making her seem all the more powerful. ‘The barge she sat in, like a burnished throne Burned in the water’ conveys a sensual impression of Cleopatra, showing her coming down the Nile in the most luxurious fashion making her seem like a desirable object for the Roman men. The description of silver and gold on the barge Cleopatra travelled on shows the elegance the Egyptian Queen carries with her and the impression she leaves on men. Enobarbus recalls the scene using both visual and olfactory imagery – ‘Purple the sails, and so perfumed that The winds were lovesick’, even personifying the wind, to give us the impression that Cleopatra is intoxicating to those who see her; that they can recall their time near her in great detail. It is said that Cleopatra’s appearance ‘beggared all description’ and that she is, ‘O’erpicturing the Venus where we see The fancy outwork nature’ – We get the impression through Enobarbus’ description that Cleopatra is a great beauty, as he cannot find words to describe her appearance; that not even the portrait of Venus herself is a match nor a strong enough portrayal of her. Caesural pauses are used throughout Enobarbus’ description, and these pauses help emphasise how breath taking Cleopatra seems to be. When the Egyptian Queen is on the barge, it is said ‘On each side her Stood pretty dimpled boys, like smiling Cupids’ – the simile used, shows the queen in almost awe, as cupids are associated with love which most people crave and when used with Cleopatra, it would portray her as wanton to be desired and craved. Nearly every detail of Cleopatra’s appearance is described by the solider, as he even notes that the winds ‘did seem To glow the delicate cheeks which they did cool’. This language would not have been expected from the almost cynical soldier, and gives us the impression that Cleopatra has a bewitching effect on those she meets, showing her to be even more desirable. Enobarbus later refers to Cleopatra’s gentlewomen who tend to her as mermaids and sea-nymphs, the daughters of Nereus the sea god – this makes Cleopatra seem almost other-worldly and gives us the impression that she is a beauty that no one has ever seen before; that she cannot simply be described in earthly terms. It is said that her gentlewomen ‘made their bends adorning’, their bowing movements help show the powerful position Cleoptra is in which gives us the impression she should not be overlooked but attention should be given to her. Cleopatra’s entrance on the barge seems almost mystical as Enobarbus says ‘the silken tackle Swell with the touches of those flower-soft hands’ adding to the sensual appearance of the Queens entry making her seems all the more desirable. Cleopatra seems to be intoxicating when approaching as it is said ‘a strange invisible perfume hits the sense’ making it seem as though the Egyptian has an effusive beauty about her which fills your every sense, leaving room for no other thoughts than of her. In Enobarbus’ description of Cleopatra’ entrance, he makes great use of polysyllabic language that would not be expected from a Roman Soldier, never mind used by him in describing an Egyptian beauty. This helps show the effect that Cleopatra has on nearly all men, giving the impression that she is that enchanting, men will fall and become besotted by her. Enobarbus mentions Antony first, in his political authoritarian manner through ‘Enthroned i’th’market-place, did sit alone’ but shows that he too was drawn to Cleopatra. We get the impression through this, that Cleopatra is that intriguing and electrifying that even the strongest soldiers fall for her. Enobarbus finally says ‘And made a gap in nature’ when describing Antony going to Cleopatra, to make it seem unnatural that a man of Antony’s position would seek her out, however this shows us that Cleopatra could captivate any man, despite their restraint.

Sunday, October 20, 2019

Biography of Felipe Caldern

Biography of Felipe Caldern Felipe de Jesà ºs Calderà ³n Hinojosa (1962 - ) is a Mexican politician and former President of Mexico, having been elected in a controversial 2006 election. A member of the PAN (Partido de Accià ³n Nacional/National Action Party) Party, Calderà ³n is a social conservative but a fiscal liberal. Background of Felipe Calderon: Calderà ³n comes from a political family. His father, Luà ­s Calderà ³n Vega, was one of several founders of the PAN party, at a time when Mexico was basically ruled by one party only, the PRI or Revolutionary Party. An excellent student, Felipe earned degrees in law and economics in Mexico before going to Harvard University, where he received a Masters of Public Administration. He joined the PAN as a young man and quickly proved capable of important posts within the party structure. Calderons Political Career: Calderà ³n served as a representative in the Federal Chamber of Deputies, which is a little like the House of Representatives in United States Politics. In 1995 he ran for governor of the state of Michoacn, but lost to Lzaro Crdenas, another son of a famous political family. He nevertheless went on to national prominence, serving as national chairman for the PAN party from 1996 to 1999. When Vicente Fox (who is also a member of the PAN party) was elected president in 2000, Calderà ³n was appointed to several important posts, including director of Banobras, a state-owned development bank, and Secretary of Energy. Presidential Election of 2006: Calderà ³n’s road to the presidency was a bumpy one. First, he had a falling-out with Vicente Fox, who openly endorsed another candidate, Santiago Creel. Creel later lost to Calderà ³n in a primary election. In the general election, his most serious opponent was Andrà ©s Manuel Là ³pez Obrador, representative of the Democratic Revolution Party (PRD). Calderà ³n won the election, but many of Là ³pez Obrador’s supporters believe that significant election fraud took place. The Mexican Supreme Court decided that President Fox’s campaigning on Calderà ³ns behalf had been questionable, but the results stood. Politics and Policies: A social conservative, Calderà ³n opposed issues such as gay marriage, abortion (including the â€Å"morning-after† pill), euthanasia and contraception education. His administration was fiscally moderate to liberal, however. He was in favor of free trade, lower taxes and privatization of state-controlled businesses. Personal Life of Felipe Calderon: He is married to Margarita Zavala, who herself once served in the Mexican Congress. They have three children, all born between 1997 and 2003. Plane Crash of November 2008: President Calderons efforts to fight organized drug cartels suffered a major setback in November, 2008, when a plane crash killed fourteen people, including Juan Camilo Mourino, Mexicos Secretary of the Interior, and Jose Luis Santiago Vasconcelos, a high-profile prosecutor of drug-related crimes. Although many suspected the accident was the result of sabotage ordered by drug gangs, evidence seems to indicate pilot error. Calderons War on the Cartels: Calderon gained worldwide recognition for his all-out war on Mexicos drug cartels. In recent years, Mexicos powerful smuggling cartels silently shipped tons of narcotics from Central and South America into the US and Canada, making billions of dollars. Other than the occasional turf war, no one heard much about them. Previous administrations had left them alone, letting sleeping dogs lie. But Calderon took them on, going after their leaders, confiscating money, weapons and narcotics and sending army forces to lawless towns. The cartels, desperate, responded with a wave of violence. When Calderons term ended, there was still a stalemate of sorts with the cartels: many of their leaders had been killed or captured, but at a great cost in lives and money for the government. Calderons Presidency: Early on in his presidency, Calderà ³n adopted many of Là ³pez Obrador’s campaign promises, such as a price cap for tortillas. This was seen by many as an effective way to neutralize his former rival and his supporters, who continued to be very vocal. He raised the wages of the armed forces and police while placing a cap on the salaries of high-level civil servants. His relationship with the United States is relatively friendly: he has had several talks with US lawmakers regarding immigration, and ordered the extradition of some drug traffickers that were wanted north of the border. In general, his approval ratings were fairly high among most Mexicans, the exception being those who accused him of election fraud. Calderà ³n staked much on his anti-cartel initiative. His war on the drug lords was well received on both sides of the border, and he forged close ties with the United States and Canada in an effort to combat the cartel operations all over the continent. The continuing violence is a concern - an estimated 12,000 Mexicans died in 2011 in drug-related violence - but many see it as a sign the cartels are hurting. Calderà ³ns term is seen by Mexicans as a limited success, as the economy continued to slowly grow. He will forever be linked with his war on the cartels, however, and Mexicans have mixed feelings about that. In Mexico, presidents may only serve one term, and Calderons came to a close in 2012. In the presidential elections, moderate Enrique Pena Nieto of the PRI won, beating out Là ³pez Obrador and PAN candidate Josefina Vzquez Mota. Pena promised to continue Calderons war on the cartels. Since stepping down as President of Mexico, Calderon has become an outspoken proponent of global action on climate change.

Saturday, October 19, 2019

Business of war and war of the business Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 2000 words

Business of war and war of the business - Essay Example Life and Debt is a documentary based on A Small Place by Jamaica Kincaid. Released in 2001, Life and Debt analyze the economic and social scenario of Jamaica with the discussion of international financial institutions like International Monetary Fund (IMF) and World Bank’s impact on Jamaica’s macro-environment. Moreover, the impact of globalization and global financial institutions’ structural adjustments on Jamaica’s economy are also discussed in the 80 minute long documentary. The documentary won 8 internationally renowned awards due to the ideology presented in the documentary (Internet Movie Database line 1-10). Lord of war was released in 2005 and is considered as belonging to crime war movie genre. Produced and directed by Andrew Niccol, Lord of War portrays the life of an illegal dealer of arms and presents the psychoanalysis of Yuri Orlov. Nicolas Cage has played the anchor role in the movie as Yuri Orlov and the majority of the part of the movie r evolves around acknowledging its audience that how international arm dealers adds to the ongoing wars in different parts of the world for the sake of increasing profitability of their business (Internet Movie Database line 1-8). First of all, the focus would be laid on the mise en scene that these two films were based on. Both movies project the deteriorated scenario of two different but financially similar societies initially. Lord of war starts with the manufacturing of bullet at a Soviet firm and its shipment to an African war zone, thus reflecting how the fire arm trade is worsening the already worst scenario in African nations like Zimbabwe, Congo and Somalia. On the other hand, Life and Debt starts with the voice over of lead artist telling the story of Jamaica’s financial system’s destruction in the hand of global financial institutions and their efforts to implement globalization policies into the business systems of Jamaica. In this sense, the plots of these t wo movies are almost same, but Lord of war focuses on acknowledging its audience about how arms dealers create wars in different regions of the world so that their revenues keep on increasing. Whereas, Life and debt focuses on acknowledging its audience about how financial institutions of the world had used their power to enrage war of business and finances in Jamaica. In this manner, both these films are same to each other when it comes to projecting war culture in different movies and the social abuse that business commit towards different nations of the world. But at the same time, these movies contrast to each other as far as the basic tool projected in both of the movies, i.e. fire arms used in Lord of War and financial resources used to create war in Life and Debt. The biggest similarity between Lord of War and Life and Debt is that these movies focuses on delivering the message that business should not forget their social responsibility and ethical boundaries to expand the si ze of their revenues. Lord of war explains how Yuri Orlov committed himself to international crimes by selling weapons to militant forces in Africa. While dealing with African dictators and militants, Yuri forgot his social responsibilities and ignored the innocent people who will be killed with the weapons he sold. Even he did not considered his brother’s death and wife’

Friday, October 18, 2019

Garbology Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 500 words - 5

Garbology - Essay Example At the end of each grounds lane, there is a huge bin where tenants are expected to dump their waste so as the truck can empty each night. Considering that garbology is an essential part in my education, I attempted to analyze the garbage in the bin one morning as part of my assignment. I realized a bag that had been left outside the bin in a torn paper bag and was so sure it belonged to our recent neighbor. I took my gloves and a mask and another paper bag so that as I go through the waste, I will put it in a better paper and throw it in the main bin. When I started collecting the scattered trash, I came across so different items that caught my eyes. There were wastes from fruits, plastic yoghourt bottles, cereal boxes, top loading sheet protectors, ink jet print transparencies, old magazines and a book. The top loading sheet protectors had been disposed of in large volumes. I concluded that there are people who live in the house and work inside the house too. The sheets had been stuck to each other and seemed to be no longer usable. The protectors were along a file a file with the name of a company called HSBC that made me conclude that in the house there lived a banker, and his name was Mr. McDonald. The Jet ink transparencies had cartoon characters drawn on it. This made me conclude that there is one of the family members that is I the creative field and is involved in coming up with comics or probably works for the media that requires cartoons. One of the transparencies had with it the name Jack. In addition, the cartoon that was drawn was one in a recent blog that talks about teenagers in a website for teens. This communicated that I the house there is a teenager who is creative and concentrates on drawing cartoons. The old magazines seemed to be women oriented. This communicates that there is existence of women in the house who are focused on fashion. Another

Change management of Toyota and Nissan Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 3000 words

Change management of Toyota and Nissan - Essay Example The paper throws light on change management as a controlled approach employed to deal with changes both from the discernment of a human being or an organisation. It is a realistic method which involves altering individuals, teams, and organisations from an existing state to the preferred or future state. It is a managerial practice which intends to help employees in acknowledging the changes in their current industry environment. A change process or change management process is a set of actions that helps a group of members to control the specific change efficiently. The change process facilitates to trace the change requests, to evaluate and to endorse the requests, before execution. This mechanism eases the process of alteration. However, change is present in both personal and professional lives. Therefore, change management is the process which is utilised by organisations so as to accomplish their prospective goals. Change management process utilises varied tactics and procedures in order to achieve final objectives. Moreover, the process of change can be implemented effectively only if members coordinate and accept the change in a positive manner. It is the liability of the employees to manage change in such a way so that it enhances the effectiveness as well as provides inspiration and augments morale of employees of an organisation. Along with the employees, the superiors of an organisation are also responsible for proper adoption and implementation of changes. This can be done only with the help of proper communication and harmonisation among the employees of organisation. Proper management of a change can augment dedication and motivation of the employees towards work thereby improving productivity, firmness and profitability of organisation (Nakae, 2005). Hence, it can be avowed that change management is one of the significant systems utilised by organisations so as to retain and cope up with the cultural challenges of the current scenario. Change man agement is a practice utilised for sustaining in the global environmental conditions among other competitors in the long run (Fahy & Cunningham, 2007). The assignment mainly provides a concise understanding of the prime reasons for change, change management process adopted and the problems faced by the members of the organisations after adoption of the change. The organisations selected for the assignment are Toyota and Nissan. Discussion Change management is the process of scheduling, executing and evaluating of changes so as to cope up with the exigent environment. In order to sustain in this competitive environment, change is essential, so the practice of change management is also mandatory. The procedures of change management are mainly utilised so as to improve the level of potentials of employees and productivity along with development of new tactics, techniques and management systems. Change management process occurs due to diverse reasons in assorted organisations but in thi s assignment, internal issues related to human resource are predominantly highlighted. Reasons for Change Nissan Motor Company Ltd is one of the leading car producer organizations of Japan. It is a reputed trade name in the sector of automobile, and markets its cars with the brand name Datsun. It came into existence in the year 1934. Since then, Nissan Motor Company Ltd is adopting and accepting variety of changes in order to retain a reputed brand image in the competitive market of Japan. Moreover, in order to retain its uniqueness in the market among other competitors, change management is essential. However, in order to retain its market share and sustainability, Nissan Motors tied up with two other reputed automotive giants named Daimler and Renault (Renault, 2010). The prime objective behind this international collaboration is mutual