Wednesday, November 27, 2019

Assess the dramatic effect of Eva Smith in relation to two of the characters in An Inspector Calls Essays

Assess the dramatic effect of Eva Smith in relation to two of the characters in An Inspector Calls Essays Assess the dramatic effect of Eva Smith in relation to two of the characters in An Inspector Calls Essay Assess the dramatic effect of Eva Smith in relation to two of the characters in An Inspector Calls Essay Essay Topic: Literature We are halfway through Act Three of An Inspector Calls by J. B. Priestley. The Inspector has, just as eerily and spookily as he arrived, exited the home of the Birling family. His provocation of the revelations that have been forced out by all members of the family including Sheilas husband-to-be Gerald, has left them bewildered and as very different people to the happy family group they were a few hours previously. In this play, the Inspector has very prominently acted as the representative for Eva Smith, who has apparently died tragically this night. We are given a few details about this girl she was country-born and was blessed with soft brown hair and dark brown eyes and a pretty appearance. Taking into account the fact that Eva is a young woman to whom we have never spoken and who does not physically enter this play at all she is but a diary, a photograph and a story how exactly has she managed to affect these five lives so colossally? I will focus on the reactions of and the effect upon Arthur and Sheila Birling father and daughter. It appears that, ironically, the Birling family has once again been split. At the beginning of the play, the audience remembers the men together in the drawing room, sharing drinks and talking of success. Mr. Birling, father of Eric and Sheila, is obviously a businessman with a very capitalist nature and way of thinking, given his mission statement working together for lower costs and higher prices as he lectures Gerald and Eric. Maybe this personality flaw is what has caused him to continue being stubborn and disbelieving towards Inspector Goole, now that he has gone. What does Mr. Birling care that Eva has died, and that, as pointed out by the Inspector, neither he nor his wife, son, daughter or her fiance an ever even say Im sorry, Eva Smith? It seems Arthur Birlings pompous and selfish attitude is stronger than his feelings of guilt. Even before Mr. Birling realises that the unfair and unjustified, abrupt dismissal of Eva from Birling Company two years ago, following her request for a rise and the ensuing workers strike, contributed to her death, he says, its a perfectly straightforward case, and as it happened more than eighteen months ago obviously it has nothing to do with the wretched girls suicide! The use of the word wretched is very damning and disrespectful of Eva, especially considering Mr. Birlings own input into her death. Of his refusal to grant Eva the couple of shillings more that she requested, he says, if you dont come down sharply on some of these people, theyd soon be asking for the Earth! He does not realise how much of the Earth he himself has actually taken, until the Inspector wittily replies, after all its better to ask for the Earth than to take it. It appears that Inspector Goole has managed to stir up some feelings of panic in Mr. Birling though as youd imagine they are not related to Evas tragic death or his involvement in it. He is, in fact, worrying again about his social standing and prestige. He has discovered that, to keep Eva and the child they were expecting before she died, Arthurs son, Eric, had been stealing money from Birling Company to give to her. Mr. Birling knows that as soon as Eva realised the money she was being given was stolen, she refused to take any more. He still, however, hurriedly insists that Eric give him a record of those accounts so that he can cover thi s up as soon as possible. Mr. Birlings driving concern is his own self-interest. Theyll be a public scandal, he says tactlessly. Here we note how hes prepared to pay out thousands to keep the scandal quiet. Mr. Birling is more concerned with the embarrassment he would face if it was to arise that Eric had stolen some of the companys money, rather than his own sons deceit and his reasons for taking the money in the first place. After all, any revelations about Birling Co. would surely hinder Arthur Birlings chance of being knighted. If we keep track of Birlings behaviour ever since the point of the Inspectors exit, we notice his relief at the point when the family begins to question the identity of the Inspector. When it becomes apparent that Gerald has actually established that Inspector Goole is not a registered member of the force, Mr. Birling cheers up considerably! Obviously the reason for this is his comfort in thinking there might still be a chance of knighthood for him. Surely the majority of his family would simply be relieved that the untoward parts they played in the life of a young woman were not cumulative and there has in fact been no actual death? Mrs. Birling certainly takes this view, apparently forgetting that the family members did do what they did, and says of her children, In the morning theyll be as amused as we are. However, Sheila Birling, Arthurs daughter, is considerably more affected by the revelations than her father. For Eva, whether or not she exists or did exist, has proved to be a poignant learning curve for Sheila in relation to her temper and the way she acts in relation to others. Sheila, of course, was a regular customer at the department store called Milwards when Eva was enjoying a fairly steady, well-paid job there. Sheila was being adamant and very stubborn towards her mother and insisted that she try on a dress shed seen. Sheila had been in a furious temper that day anyway, and we realise later that it was because her partner Gerald had been having an affair (or so she suspected). Sheilas mother and the sales assistant, Miss Francis, had both advised Sheila that to try the dress on would be a mistake, but she had insisted. After having tried the dress on, Sheila knew immediately that the two had been right all along, and that the dress did not flatter her at all. Sheila described how this girl [Eva] had brought the dress up from the workroom, and when the assistant Miss Francis had asked her something about it, to show us what she meant, she had helped the dress up, as if she was wearing it. Sheila said it just suited her and that she was jealous of her figure and her dark eyes. Then, when Sheila was looking at herself in the dress, she caught sight of Eva smiling at Miss Francis. Becoming furious and taking the smile the wrong way, Sheila promptly demanded to see the manager and insisted that, unless they fired Eva, she would boycott the store forever. Sheila used her power as the daughter of a respected customer to make life difficult and miserable for Eva. This, we are told by the Inspector, was Evas final steady job she was never employed again. From Act One of the play, we could see that something was very wrong in the relationship between Sheila and her father, simply because of their difference in personality. When her father egotistically states his capitalist views and opinions on the working world and society in general, Sheila is at the forefront of protest. She says, but these girls arent cheap labour theyre people! I think that, from Sheilas siding with Eric following the departure of the Inspector and her reluctance to believe that the whole affair was simply a hoax, she has learnt more from the story (and definitely the possible reality) of Eva Smith and her plight, that any other member of her family. I suppose were all nice people now, says Sheila sarcastically. She means, of course, to mock the attitude of her family and her fianci in realisation of their involvement with Eva Smith and her death. Much to her dismay, disbelief and disappointment, they cling onto their last shreds of dignity in a way that only self-centred narcissistic people do (Was he really a police Inspector? How do we know any girl killed herself today? ) and attempting to erase the previous few hours. Mr. Birling even offers the men a drink! Sheila, however, is adamant that she will prove her point that each one of them still has a great deal to be sorry for. Sheila is just as uncertain as any of the other family members as to whether or not Eva existed as one girl or as five but the mysterious figure of Eva has affected her deeply. It doesnt alter the fact that we all helped to kill her, she says. In my opinion, Sheila is right! Inspector Goole acts very much as the voice of J. B. Priestley and of Eva Smith; especially during his final speech when he told the family, there are millions and millions and millions of Eva Smiths and John Smiths still left with us all intertwined with our lives we dont live alone. Mr Birling needs to have taken note of the Inspectors lesson, in which he warned people of being taught in fire and blood and anguish if they did not begin to realise how their apparently trivial or self-righteous actions have significant effects on others around them. Despite Sheilas pleas and analytical attitude towards the Inspectors speech and his presence, Mr. Birling and his wife typically endeavour to pass her words off as childish misunderstanding: Really, from the way you children [Eric and Sheila] talk, you might be wanting to help him instead of us! However, is the reality of that statement so ridiculous? I certainly feel that the intentions of the Inspector and Eva Smith, whoever they were, were to remind them to help each other and to help others in society, however far beneath them in terms of social hierarchy they are considered to be. Eva, whether real or imaginary (and the feeling of her existence is certainly very strong), is a very touching archetype of societys in difference, maybe even hatred, of others around them. This applies most fully to people of supposedly high social status people like Arthur Birling and his family who live in large houses and drink expensive port. Mr. Birling does not see that the Inspector has proved his society and all that nonsense theory to be absolutely incorrect. At the very end of Act Three, the telephone to the Birling household rings, and it is spookily confirmed that a girl has in fact died at the Infirmary that very night. Priestley describes the shock of the family members as they stare, guiltily. This is effective because every one of them is, in one way or another, guilty. The telephone call really seems to confirm the fact that the selfishness of each member of the Birling family and Gerald Croft, although maybe not quite so heavily in his case, has contributed to the death of a young woman. This brings the audience to the (intensely dramatic) end of the play, and we cannot help but wonder how the lives of the family will fare following this incident and the series of incidents during their recent years. We have been led to believe that Eva and her fate has brought about the possibility of Sheila and Eric changing their attitudes and the ways in which they react to members of society around them. Sheilas involvement with Eva Smiths death was the result of her very strong temper and the fact that she misused her high status to induce problems in the life of another. Eva Smith and her story will hopefully have caused her to rethink her actions and their possible consequences. Her brother Erics life had become intertwined with Evas when he was intoxicated at the Palace Variety Bar, and picked her up. Eric is a character whose life seems to have become very difficult and complicated it may have taken someone like Eva to make him change his ways and think about his disregard for everything rational and caring. The audience hopes, however, that the person upon whom Eva Smith has had the most dramatic effect is Arthur Birling. It is rather saddening to watch the family having had such an experience, almost a blessing, with a prophet such as Inspector Goole and his interrogation. This is because he has taught Arthur, Sybil, Sheila, Eric and Gerald a very valuable lesson, which half of the family has apparently taken no note of whatsoever. It is apparent that Eva Smith, Daisy Renton or whoever it was coming into contact with the Birling family over the said period of time may not exist, but this has not stopped her from having an extremely consequential effect on five people. Priestley has, fully intentionally of course, left us wondering if the Birlings will think about their effect upon people around them or whether they will have to be taught their lesson of concern for those of lower social standing in fire, blood and anguish.

Saturday, November 23, 2019

Biography of Gregorio Zara, Inventor of the Videophone

Biography of Gregorio Zara, Inventor of the Videophone Gregorio Zara (March 8, 1902–October 15, 1978) was a Filipino scientist best known as the inventor of the videophone, the first two-way electronic video communicator, in 1955. All told, he patented 30 devices. His other inventions ranged from an alcohol-powered airplane engine to a solar-powered water heater and stove. Fast Facts: Gregorio Zara Known For: Inventor of the video telephoneBorn: March 8, 1902 in Lipa City, Batangas, PhilippinesDied: October 15, 1978Education: Massachusetts Institute of Technology, University of Michigan, Sorbonne UniversityAwards and Honors: National Scientist Award (Philippines)Spouse: Engracia Arcinas LaconicoChildren: Antonio, Pacita, Josefina, Lourdesï » ¿ Early Life Gregorio Zara was born on March 8, 1902, in Lipa City, Batangas, Philippines. He earned a bachelors degree in mechanical engineering at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology, a masters in aeronautical engineering (summa cum laude) at the University of Michigan, and a doctorate in physics at Sorbonne University in Paris (summa cum laude with Tres Honorable, the highest graduate student honor). He returned to the Philippines and became involved in both the government and the academic worlds. He worked in several posts with the Department of Public Works and Communications and the Department of National Defense, mostly in the aviation. At the same time, he taught aeronautics at several universities- including the American Far Eastern School of Aviation, the Far Eastern University, and the FEATI University- and published many books and research papers on aeronautics. In 1934 Zara married Engracia Arcinas Laconico, who the year before had been named Miss Philippines. They had four children: Antonio, Pacita, Josefina, and Lourdesï » ¿. Discoveries Begin In 1930, he discovered the physical law of electrical kinetic resistance, known as the Zara Effect, which involves the resistance to the passage of an electric current when contacts are in motion. Later he invented the earth induction compass, which is still used by pilots, and in 1954 his airplane engine powered by alcohol had a successful test flight at the Ninoy Aquino International Airport. Then came the videophone. Before video calling became as commonplace as it is in the 21st century, the technology had been developed but started slowly, possibly because it was so far ahead of its time. In the middle of the 1950s, long before the start of the digital age, Zara developed the first videophone or two-way television-telephone. The device left the realm of science fiction and comic books when Zara patented it in 1955 as a â€Å"photo phone signal separator network.† Videophone Catches On That first iteration didnt catch on, largely because it wasn’t intended as a commercial product. But in the 1960s, ATT began working on a model of a videophone, called a â€Å"picturephone,† aimed at the public. The company released the videophone at the 1964 New York World’s Fair, but it was seen as impractical and didnt fare well. It caught fire as the digital age was beginning in the late 1990s. The videophone first caught on as a device that easily enabled distance learning and video conferencing and also proved helpful for the hearing impaired. Then came such derivations as Skype and smartphones, and the videophone became ubiquitous worldwide. Other Scientific Contributions Zaras other inventions and discoveries include: Improving methods of producing and harnessing solar energy, including new designs for a solar-powered water heater, stove, and battery (1960s)Inventing wooden aircraft propellers  and  a corresponding propeller-cutting machine (1952)Designing a microscope with a collapsible stageHelping design the robot Marex X-10, which could walk, talk, and respond to commandsInventing the vapor chamber, used to visualize radioactive elements Zara died of heart failure at the age of 76 in 1978. Legacy In his lifetime, Gregorio Zara amassed 30 patents. In the year of his death he was presented the National Scientist Award, the highest honor  the Philippine government gives to Filipino scientists, by President Ferdinand E. Marcos. He also received: The Presidential Diploma of MeritThe Distinguished Service Medal (1959) for his pioneering works and achievements in solar energy research, aeronautics, and televisionThe Presidential Gold Medal and Diploma of Honor for Science and Research (1966)The Cultural Heritage Award for Science Education and Aero Engineering (1966) Sources Meet Gregorio Zara, the Filipino Engineer Who Created the World’s First Video Phone. in Philippine History, March 8, 1902, Gregorio Y. Zara was born in Lipa City, Batangas. The Kahimyang Project.Role Models in Science Engineering Achievement: Gregorio Zara. Philippines of the Manila Carnival, Engracia Arcinas Laconico. Manila Carnivals 1908-39.

Thursday, November 21, 2019

Marketing Management Class Disscussion wk9 Essay

Marketing Management Class Disscussion wk9 - Essay Example Geographic segmentation, demographic segmentation, psychographic segmentation, and behavioral segmentation are all forms of market segmentation that enable companies to focus on the desires and needs of potential buyers. In addition, it is easy for a business to identify and understand its competitors and their strategy (Gale and Swire, 2006). would be a free e-learning website that seeks to provide free outstanding education to all visitors globally. The value of the website is unknown, as it will take nearly a year for its completion. For that reason, perceived-value pricing is the appropriate pricing strategy for the website/product. The value of the service depends on the price consumers are willing to pay and not on its production costs (Gale and Swire, 2006). Perceived-value pricing is effective in marketing of the website because its price is set in accordance to the perceived value of prospective buyers. Pricing strategy is a necessary constituent of market segmentation. It is a essential for any business because it helps determine market share and profitability of a business. A new business may need to set a lower price than that in the market, to penetrate the market. Even so, it should not be too low to result in losses for the

Tuesday, November 19, 2019

IKEA AND UK DISTRIBUTION Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 2500 words

IKEA AND UK DISTRIBUTION - Essay Example It is argued that the supply chain standards are not fixed at a uniform level or universal conditions cannot be established. Several factors should be taken into consideration while implementing a supply chain implementation or improvement plan. Factors contributing to the effective development of supply chain management are many and varied, which include: The main source of competitive advantage in services industry is efficient service for the customers. Supply chain plays an important role in the efficient service provision to the customers. "The goal of a supply chain should be to maximise overall supply chain profitability. Supply chain profitability is the difference between the revenue generated from the customer and the total cost incurred across all stages of the supply chain. Supply chain decisions have a large impact on the success or failure of each firm because they significantly influence both the revenue generated as well as the cost incurred. Successful supply chains manage flows of product, information, and funds to provide a high level of product availability to the customer while keeping costs low." (Chopra & Meindl, 2004; 44) The IKEA should undertake the approach of goods flow on supply chain according to their shelf life and not just on the time they've been in the supply chain. "For instance, products with long lead-times that have been exposed to high temperatures during distribution would be sent to the retail shelves before those with short lead-times but distributed under more favourable conditions". (Roberti, 2005) The international sourcing policy effects the corporate, marketing, purchasing, and other strategies. It is important for the Management of IKEA to connect the future objectives with corporate objectives and strategy. IKEA and UK distribution: IKEA is a worldwide name with some 175 stores worldwide in locations as far apart as Singapore and the Czech Republic. It works with approximately 1800 suppliers and 55 countries, and its range is made up of around 10,000 products. Swedish furniture retailing giant IKEA's massive newly opened Peterborough distribution center is fast becoming a familiar landmark on the city's outskirts. With over 57,000 square meters of storage space, and boasting an underground geothermal heating system, the 21.3 million warehouse will employ some 250 people by the summer -- all newly created jobs. It will help the company service its 11 existing British stores, which occupy over 26,000 square meters apiece. 20 more outlets should be opened by 2010, leading to a

Sunday, November 17, 2019

German military Essay Example for Free

German military Essay The overwhelming tactics unleashed by the Nazis at the beginning of World War Two signaled a shocking advance in the art of warfare. The allies struggled to devise defenses against the blitzkrieg of the German military. Eventually, they were able to repel the Germans. However, the nations of the world learned a great deal from the blitzkrieg. This frightening tactic would be emulated and modified in the decades to come. As the Blitzkrieg inspired fear in its opponents, it also eventually inspired overconfidence in the Germans. Many of the nations that the Germans attacked in the first years had antiquated militaries and were ill prepared for the onslaught of the German Wehrmacht and the Luftwaffe. In the first years of the conflict, the Luftwaffe seemed both omnipresent and nearly invincible as it fought on fronts as distant as North Africa and Northern Russia. 1 The Allies would be forced by the Blitzkrieg to rapidly retool their militaries and their military strategies. In the mean time, the Blitzkrieg would cause devastation across Europe. War in the early 20th Century World War One served as a major turning point in the conduct of warfare. Prior to this war, the idea of honor for ones opponent still existed to a certain degree. Many commanders frowned upon sneak attacks and civilian casualties. By 1914, the technology of weaponry had advanced significantly. It was now possible to kill large numbers of 1. Dale Brown (ed. ). The Luftwaffe. Alexandria, VA: Time-Life Books, 1982. (16). soldiers easily. The tremendous number of casualties eliminated any sense of battlefield chivalry that remained. The machine gun, deadly gases, air power and more accurate and deadly shells resulted in unprecedented casualties. Yet, neither side was gaining any substantial ground. The war settled into a deadly stalemate in which soldiers were routinely sacrificed in large numbers with little hope of gain. With the exit of the newly formed Soviet Union and the entry of the United States into the conflict it became clear that Germany would run out of manpower before the allies. The eventual peace levied a punitive price on Germany. The nation was forced to accept full blame for the war, change its form of government, pay reparations and reduce the size of its military. Feeling the humiliation of the Versailles treaty, the Germans who would later come to power were determined not to make the same mistakes as their predecessors. After World War One, a committee was formed to assess war issues and strategies. It was decided that strategies emphasizing maneuver and surprise would be necessary in the future. Carl von Clausewitz and other German military theoreticians had successfully used such tactics in prior wars. 2 The new German command would draw on these principles, and merge them with rapidly advancing military technology. The Germans knew that, for them, a war of attrition was unwinnable. Yet, there were some who wanted to avenge the harsh terms of the Versailles treaty. The Nazis only held a minority in the Reichstag, but Hitler managed to maneuver his way into absolute power. From the early 1930’s, the Germans violated the terms of the treaty and rebuilt 2. Larry H. Addington. The Pattern of War Since the Eighteenth Century. Bloomington: Indiana University Press, 1994. their military to frightening levels. Military leaders, such as Goring and Himmler studied the theories of J. F. C. Fuller and Liddell Hart in order to craft military strategies that took advantage of cutting edge technology. 3 Shades of the future could be seen even before the end of World War One. The Germans used Blitzkrieg-like attacks in Russia and in France during 1918. By that time, however, attrition had decimated the German forces and they were ultimately unable to capitalize upon these successes. What is Blitzkrieg? Blitzkrieg, or â€Å"Lightning War† was a startling advance on warfare first used comprehensively in the Nazi attack of Poland in 1939. The tactic was used extensively in the following years. The Blitzkrieg provided great success for the regime throughout Europe, in North Africa, and initially in Russia. The term â€Å"Blitzkrieg† is now a general term used to describe a variety of military actions. In all cases, it is a well-planned, widespread attack used to decimate the enemy’s defenses swiftly. In World War Two, the Nazi blitzkriegs often consisted of a specific sequence of actions. Any definition of Blitzkrieg should include the following elements: a decentralized command structure, the avoidance of combat in favor of targeting infrastructure, the use of air support, and the use of mobile, mechanized artillery. Engineering assets must also be prevalent in order to keep the force moving quickly. 4 3. Kenneth Macksey. Guderian: Panzer General. London: Greenhill Books, 2003 4. Alexander B. Rossino. Hitler Strikes Poland: Blitzkrieg Ideology and Atrocity. Lawrence: University Press of Kansas, 2003. The term itself came into use in the mid 1930’s, although elements of the strategy had been around for centuries. It came into widespread use after Time magazine used it to describe the German attack on Poland in 1939. First, infrastructure, communications, and the front and back line troops are attacked by air. Any air forces were to be neutralized immediately. This is done by heavy, concentrated bombing sorties. The goal was to effectively blind the enemy and gain air superiority. Following closely behind, tank divisions break through and advance quickly. Other mechanized units follow the tanks, engaging the enemy and establishing strategic strongholds. Communication is critical for such an attack. Advances in radio technology allowed the Germans to create a seamless network in which commanders could receive, and react to, real time information from any sector of the battlefield. Meanwhile, the infantry is engaging the enemy forces. Those forces are then unable to pull back and defend against the fast-moving mechanized forces. The enemy flanks are also attacked. Ground forces continue the process of encircling the enemy forces, while the tank units plunge ever further into enemy territory. The highly concentrated, fierce attacks often caught enemies off-guard. The mechanized units advanced at such a rate that they were able to continually out flank defenders. Often within weeks the enemy forces would be circled and cut of from reinforcements. To enhance the effectiveness of these attacks, the Germans usually did not declare war. In some cases, Hitler had even made non-aggression pacts with countries he later attacked. Unleashing the new war machine The Nazi war plan was the product of years of preparation. Although the Blitzkrieg is a name specifically describing actions that began in 1939, the Nazis had already experimented with the idea prior to the war. The Spanish civil war of the late 1930’s provided a proving ground, of sorts, for a new theory of war. German high command participated in the war, evaluating and honing tactics for the larger conflict to come. According to Dale M Brown in The Luftwaffe: The eruption of that conflict in 1936 had been welcomed by Hitler and his Generals as a heaven sent opportunity for the young German air force to test its planes, train its air crews and develop new fighting techniques under modern battle conditions. 5 In 1939, the Nazi government manufactured a border dispute with neighboring Poland. The Polish army was accused of entering German territory and committing murder. Coincidentally enough, German forces were already poised at the border and ready for an offensive attack. What would occur next would come to be known as the Blitzkrieg. Poland and the other European nations were ill-prepared for the German onslaught. German forces poured in to Poland with lightning speed, while the Luftwaffe quickly neutralized the Polish Air Force. The Blitzkrieg had achieved its first major success. Edwin P. Holt writes in Angels of Death: Goring’s Luftwaffe: The effect was terrible. In minutes the roads were scenes of devastation and carnage. It was a case of a modern war machine 5. Dale Brown (ed. ). The Luftwaffe. Alexandria, VA: Time-Life Books, 1982. (19). fighting a nineteenth-century army. 6 The speed of the attack was unprecedented. It was both physically and psychologically devastating for the Polish populace. Centers of population thought safely within the country’s interior were now reachable in a matter of days. The stunning attacks struck fear into both the civilian and military population. This, in fact, was a critical part of the Blitzkrieg plan. A population that feels utterly vulnerable is likely to submit quickly. The eyewitnesstohistory. com website provides a diary entry fro a German tank commander. He writes of the later French campaign: The people in the houses were rudely awoken by the din of our tanks, the clatter and roar of tracks and engines. Troops lay bivouacked beside the road†¦Civilians and French troops, their faces distorted with terror lay huddled in the ditches. 7 The Blitzkrieg later used against the French would be ruthlessly efficient. Historians disagree as to whether the Polish campaign was technically a Blitzkrieg, citing many of its conventional elements. It has come to be known as the beginning of Blitzkrieg none the less. It was devastatingly fast, and nearly impossible to defend against. The Polish defenders fought valiantly, but they were over matched. Polish troops repeatedly charged the German tanks in what amounted to a suicide mission. Nazi commanders, secure in their tanks spoke arrogantly of the Polish campaign. In Tank, Patrick Wright described the Nazi’s attitude: 6. Edwin P. Hoyt. Angels of Death: Goring’s Luftwaffe. New York: Forge, 1994. (146). 7. Ibis Communications Inc. â€Å"Blitzkrieg: 1940. † 2002. http://eyewitnesstohistory. com/pfblitzkrieg. htm . Accessed 22 December 2006. Hitler’s tank General, Heinz Guderian, claimed that the Polish Lancers took this desperate step â€Å"In ignorance of the nature of our tanks† and suffered â€Å"tremendous losses† as a consequence. 8 After the successful campaign against the Poles, the Nazi regime turned its sights toward the other neighboring countries. Some of them, intimidated by the Blitzkrieg, fell without a fight. Others were quickly overwhelmed by the ever more efficient blitz tactics. Before the end of 1940, Norway, the Netherlands and Belgium had all fallen into German hands. With military confidence at an all-time high, Hitler unleashed the blitz on Russia in 1941. In short order, German troops surrounded Moscow and Leningrad. In the East, Hitler stood triumphantly in Paris. France had been conquered in less than two months. After the First World War, the French had constructed a system of border defenses called the Maginot Line. It was thought that this line could prevent any invasion, or at least delay it long enough for defenders to assemble. The Germans studied the line intensively and found its weak points. This illustrates the theory of schwerpunkt – a maximum concentration of integrated forces at one focal area. 9 From there, mechanized forces could get behind, and eventually encircle defenders. Ultimately, the Maginot line could not stand up to the much-advanced German tanks and artillery. Mechanized units plunged through the line, fanned out, and quickly drove remaining French forces underground. The process would be repeated many times throughout Europe. 8. Patrick Wright. Tank: the progress of a monstrous war machine. New York: Penguin Books, 2003. (232) 9. Bryan Perrett and John Hacket. A History of Blitzkrieg. New York: Stein and Day, 1984. German forces under Gen Erwin Rommel also used Blitzkrieg tactics in North Africa. Initially, they faced little resistance. Deception was often a part of the North African version of Blitzkrieg. Tanks and the Luftwaffe were still the spearheads of the attack, but Rommel also used the natural elements to his advantage. From The War in the Desert by Richard Collier: Behind them [the tanks] groaned trucks whose drivers were doing their best to obey Rommel’s order: â€Å"Rear vehicles to raise dust – Nothing but dust. † 10 Small deceptions such as this allowed the Germans to stretch their forces farther than otherwise possible. The Germans streaked across the desert, acquiring strategic positions and valuable natural resources. The allies had seen the devastating Blitzkrieg in Europe and now they faced a foe of unknown strength in Africa. That was how the Germans wanted it. From The War in the Desert: It was becoming increasingly clear that the enemy believed us to be far stronger than we actually were, Rommel said, â€Å"A belief that was essential to maintain. 11 In addition, the bombing of London is commonly referred to as â€Å"the Blitz†. From the perspective of those being bombed, this is understandable. Militarily, however, these attacks did not meet the technical definition of Blitzkrieg. Still, the whistle of the dive- bombing German Stukas provided the intimidation that could have made a later invasion easier. 10. Richard Collier. The War in the Desert. Alex. , VA: Time-Life Books, 1977. (64). 11. Richard Collier. The War in the Desert. Alex. , VA: Time-Life Books, 1977. (65). A key aspect of Blitzkrieg is the integration of all branches of the military in a well-coordinated attack. Air power was still relatively new to the battlefield. It had existed in WWI. Initially, balloons had been used for reconnaissance and occasional bombing. Later in the war, fighter aircraft were developed to the point of effectiveness. Strategy, however, was in its infancy. Using air power in concert with the army was rare and often ineffective. The Nazi’s were innovative in using the rapidly developing flight technology to its best advantage. If air power was important to the success of the blitzkrieg, the tank was critical. The mobility, firepower and defenses of the tank were substantially better than their WWI counterparts, due mainly to the innovation of the Germans. In World War One the tank was still relatively new. It showed potential as an offensive weapon, but it had many problems as well. WWI tanks frequently got stuck, broke down or were sabotaged. Some were very lightly armored. By the end of the war, the Germans had realized that the tank was ineffective in a stalemate situation. However, it showed great promise in swift, mobile attacks. Some of Germany’s potential foes also realized the military potential of mechanized warfare. British generals, including Sir Basil Liddell, were simultaneously developing the strategy of mechanized warfare. George Parada writes: They all postulated that tanks could not only seize ground by brute strength, but could also be the central factor in a new strategy of warfare†¦. All of them found the tank to be the ultimate weapon. 12 Speed was the central aspect to the Blitzkrieg. The Nazi’s had to cut off 12. George Parada. â€Å"The Concept of Blitzkrieg: Achtung Panzer. † 1996. http://www. achtungpanzer. com/blitz. htm . Accessed 23 December 2006. reinforcements and prevent enemy troops from regrouping to be successful. All of the actions of the Blitzkrieg were aimed toward those ends. Technological advances allowed for that speed. If the first wave of potential defenders could not be completely destroyed, at the logistics and communication that support those defenders could be interrupted. Further reinforcements would then have a difficult time catching up to the speedy German attack. The differences in military hardware between WWI and WWII are stark. Aircraft, for example, had become many times faster and more deadly. Tanks, also, were far more powerful and mobile than in the First World War. The changes in strategy that created the Blitzkrieg soon followed. From the eyewitnesstohistory. com website: This was a new kind of warfare integrating tanks, air power, artillery and motorized infantry into a steel juggernaut emphasizing speedy movement and maximization of battlefield opportunities. 13 The end of the Blitz? The success of the Blitzkrieg was reliant on many factors. For years, the Germans had been planning out every detail of their actions. One critical element, however, was beyond their control. The lack of enemy preparedness was as important as anything the Germans did in the attacks. As the war dragged on, German resources waned and the preparedness of the Allies increased. The blitz proved to be devastatingly effective against Germany’s European neighbors. Most were overrun within weeks. The blitz had its limitations, though. When the Nazi’s attacked the Soviet Union success appeared imminent. Russia is a massive 13. Ibis Communications Inc. â€Å"Blitzkrieg: 1940. † 2002. http://eyewitnesstohistory. com/pfblitzkrieg. htm . Accessed 22 December 2006. landmass with a vast amount of resources and often severe weather conditions. These forces would spread the German military too thin, and eventually turn it back. In the West, the English Channel provided a natural barrier against the Germans. The same fast, well-coordinated and overwhelming attacks that had brought great success in Europe were simply not possible against Great Britain. Germany was never able to gain air superiority over England and never launched an invasion. By 1944 the Blitzkrieg attacks had run their course. The Soviets had outlasted the Germans on the Eastern front. In the east, the Americans had joined Allied forces for the successful D-Day invasion. On the defensive, Germany was no longer able to mount massive blitz attacks. During their retreat, they were able to perform one final coordinated attack, at the Ardennes in France. The Blitzkrieg was undoubtedly effective in the early going. The stealth and speed of the attacks allowed the Germans to quickly conquer territories that might not have been possible with conventional tactics. As effective as it was, the Blitzkrieg could not counteract one maxim of conventional warfare – The side with the most resources will eventually win. The Germans simply could not match the resources the Allies could muster. The element of surprise was also gone by 1943. In the face of overwhelming force, the Blitzkrieg was neutralized. Pointing toward the future The Blitzkrieg advanced warfare to shocking levels. At least in the early going the Germans were successful in avoiding long wars of attrition. The Blitzkrieg also provided an intimidating image in which civilians were often in the crosshairs of the war machine. From Tank by Patrick Wright: †¦the image converts the opening weeks of the Second World War into a collision between eras; petrol against muscle, faceless mechanized power against personal valour. 14 It was a rude awakening to a new era of warfare. Killing was now impersonal in many cases. It could now be done from great distances in any conditions. Te days of two armies warring endlessly along a well-defined front were over. The Germans cannot be given all of the credit for developing what would become the Blitzkrieg. Mobile warfare had, in fact, been around for centuries. German commander Guderian and others gave credit to British theoreticians Liddell Hart and J. F. C. Fuller, although the extent of their influence is still a matter of debate. 15 During the late 1920’s the British had created an experimental force to test the effects of fully mechanized warfare. Fuller created new battle plans emphasizing the role of the modern tank. The Germans studied these actions closely, and improved upon them. Germany had also emerged as an industrial and scientific power. This was critical in the development of their new military. The advances in machinery in the early twentieth century allowed for unprecedented military speed. The Germans learned well from their World War One experience. Other nations were also developing Blitzkrieg-like tactics before WWII. The Germans, however, were the first to use the new strategy in a comprehensive way. In a world still war weary and suffering an economic depression, the Blitzkrieg achieved maximum shock value. 14. Patrick Wright. Tank: the progress of a monstrous war machine. New York: Penguin Books, 2003. (232). 15. Kenneth Macksey. Guderian: Panzer General. London: Greenhill Books, 2003. Anything successful is bound to be copied. The Allies were not oblivious to the new German tactics. The innovative German tactics would now be used against them. George Parada describes the process of adaptation: At the same time [the] potential of Blitzkrieg and related tactics was fully appreciated by the Allies, who implemented its tactics on both fronts†¦George Patton used Blitzkrieg and mobile warfare tactics in his European operations of 1944. 16 Echoes of the German blitz can be seen in modern warfare. The â€Å"shock and awe† campaign of the United States military against the Iraqi regime is one such example. It was a well-prepared and widespread attack on a vast number of pre-designated targets. Unlike the German attacks, this was not initially an invasion. The advances in air and missile technology allowed for this. The Iraqi regime, unlike the European nations in WWII, had plenty of warning that the attack would occur. The goals of the blitz and the â€Å"shock and awe† campaign remain the same, however. The attacks were designed to target military assets and the infrastructure that supports them. At the same time, the attackers want to intimidate and overwhelm their foes. The ultimate goal is to avoid a bloody stalemate such as that in World War One. Today, weaponry has advanced to the point where the element of surprise is no longer necessary for a major power. Guerrilla wars are also far more prevalent today. These types of wars limit the effectiveness of Blitzkrieg-type attacks. In short, the Blitzkrieg has greatly influenced attack strategy. However, the strategy is not as invincible as it once was. 16. Parada, George. â€Å"The Concept of Blitzkrieg: Achtung Panzer. † 1996. http://www. achtungpanzer. com/blitz. htm . Accessed 23 December 2006. Notes 1. Dale Brown (ed. ). The Luftwaffe. Alexandria, VA: Time-Life Books, 1982. (16). 2. Larry H. Addington. The Pattern of War Since the Eighteenth Century. Bloomington: Indiana University Press, 1994. 3. Kenneth Macksey. Guderian: Panzer General. London: Greenhill Books, 2003 4. Alexander B. Rossino. Hitler Strikes Poland: Blitzkrieg Ideology and Atrocity. Lawrence: University Press of Kansas, 2003. 5. Dale Brown (ed. ). The Luftwaffe. Alexandria, VA: Time-Life Books, 1982. (19). 6. Edwin P. Hoyt. Angels of Death: Goring’s Luftwaffe. New York: Forge, 1994. (146). 7. Ibis Communications Inc. â€Å"Blitzkrieg: 1940. † 2002. http://eyewitnesstohistory. com/pfblitzkrieg. htm . Accessed 22 December 2006. 8. Patrick Wright. Tank: the progress of a monstrous war machine. New York: Penguin Books, 2003. (232) 9. Bryan Perrett and John Hacket. A History of Blitzkrieg. New York: Stein and Day, 1984. 10. Richard Collier. The War in the Desert. Alex. , VA: Time-Life Books, 1977. (64). 11. Richard Collier. The War in the Desert. Alex. , VA: Time-Life Books, 1977. (65). 12. George Parada. â€Å"The Concept of Blitzkrieg: Achtung Panzer. † 1996. http://www. achtungpanzer. com/blitz. htm . Accessed 23 December 2006. 13. Ibis Communications Inc. â€Å"Blitzkrieg : 1940. † 2002. http://eyewitnesstohistory. com/pfblitzkrieg. htm . Accessed 22 December 2006. 14. Patrick Wright. Tank: the progress of a monstrous war machine. New York: Penguin Books, 2003. (232). 15. Kenneth Macksey. Guderian: Panzer General. London: Greenhill Books, 2003. 16. Parada, George. â€Å"The Concept of Blitzkrieg: Achtung Panzer. † 1996. http://www. achtungpanzer. com/blitz. htm . Accessed 23 December 2006. Sources Addington, Larry H. The Pattern of War Since the Eighteenth Century. Bloomington: Indiana University Press, 1994. Brown, Dale (ed. ). The Luftwaffe. Alexandria, VA: Time-Life Books, 1982. Collier, Richard. The War in the Desert. Alexandria, VA: Time-Life Books, 1977. Corum, James S. The Roots of Blitzkrieg. Lawrence: University Press of Kansas, 1992. Ferguson, Niall. The War of the World: twentieth-century conflict and the descent of the West. New York: Penguin Books, 2006. Hoyt, Edwin P. Angels of Death: Goring’s Luftwaffe. New York: Forge, 1994. Ibis Communications Inc. â€Å"Blitzkrieg: 1940. † 2002. http://eyewitnesstohistory. com/pfblitzkrieg. htm . Accessed 22 December 2006. Macksey, Kenneth. Guderian: Panzer General. London: Greenhill Books, 2003. Parada, George. â€Å"The Concept of Blitzkrieg: Achtung Panzer. † 1996. http://www. achtungpanzer. com/blitz. htm . Accessed 23 December 2006. Perrett, Bryan and Hacket, John. A History of Blitzkrieg. New York: Stein and Day, 1984. Rossino, Alexander B. Hitler Strikes Poland: Blitzkrieg Ideology and Atrocity. Lawrence: University Press of Kansas, 2003. Rutherford, Ward. Blitzkrieg 1940. New York: Putnam Sons, 1979. Sheperd, Alan. France1940 Blitzkrieg in the West. Oxford: Osprey Publishing, 2003. Wernick, Robert. Blitzkrieg. New York: Time-Life Books, 1976. Wright, Patrick. Tank: the progress of a monstrous war machine. New York: Penguin Books, 2003.

Thursday, November 14, 2019

Coca-Cola Brand Image Essay -- Marketing Advertising Advertisement

Coca -Cola : Claims, Values and Polices Coca-Cola is a well-known and cherished brand name. When people think of this name, memories tend to overflow in their heads. Why? Because, not only does Coke taste great and refresh your own personal memories, it also fills you with memories of the Coca-Cola like "Always Coca-Cola", the antics of the Coke polar bears, and all of the different ads that have represented Coke over the years. Just about every ad you see, as a consumer, will have tons of hidden meanings. Coca-Cola may not always intend to present the same hidden meanings, but will always intend for their audience to see a commercial and hopefully crave a Coke product. I found a Diet Coke ad that really caught my eye in the August issue of Southern Living, a magazine for women. The ad, titled High School Reunion, pictured four Coke bottles in a diagonal line. The first bottle, a new unopened Diet Coke bottle, is pictured at the top left-hand corner of the page. The next two Diet Coke bottles are supposedly being consumed. At the bottom right hand corner of the ad page you see the bottle is empty. This reveals the conversation of a young woman contemplating the plans for her high school reunion. Over all Coca-Cola is believed to put these claims, supports, and warrants in their ads to make their product more appealing to the consumer. This particular Diet Coke ad is full of claims and proofs of facts, values, and policies, that are trying to make you remember the fun, old times, and memories of high school and, at the same time, associate it all with the memory of a good tasting Diet Coke. This particular ad boldly suggests the importance of friends and still being yourself. I know Coca-Cola wants you to see... ... you drink Diet Coke you will become a beautiful and skinny woman. Maybe another message this ad is trying to reveal is to not label yourself. Diet Coke doesn’t need a label; therefore you don’t need a label either. The pathos of this ad might be representing the fact that Coca-Cola has been around for a while and it has been a while since this young woman has seen her high school friends. In conclusion, I think Coca-Cola has done an excellent job of presenting the claims, supports, and warrants of it’s products in this ad. They have used many different tactics and hidden meanings to get this ad across; when their main concern is to make the ad appealing to the ordinary woman. A woman who is always in search of the perfect body, and the great memories of her high school years. Works Cited "Diet Coke Advertisement" Southern Living, August 1998. 28

Tuesday, November 12, 2019

Benito Juarez

Juarez was born in the village of San Pablo Guelatao, Oaxaca on March 21, 1807, located in the mountain range now known as the â€Å"Sierra Juarez†. His parents, Marcelino Juarez and Brigida Garcia, were peasants who both died when he was three years old. Shortly after, his grandparents died as well, in which his uncle then raised him. [2][3] He described his parents as â€Å"indios de la raza primitiva del pais,† that is, â€Å"Indians of the original race of the country. â€Å"[3] He worked in the corn fields and as a shepherd until the age of 12, when he walked to the city of Oaxaca to attend school. 1] At the time, he was illiterate and could not speak Spanish, only Zapotec. In the city, where his sister worked as a cook, he took a job as a domestic servant for Antonio Maza. [1] A lay Franciscan, Antonio Salanueva, was impressed with young Benito's intelligence and thirst for learning, and arranged for his placement at the city's seminary. He studied there but dec ided to pursue law rather than the priesthood. He graduated from the seminary in 1827 and went on to gain a degree in law. In 1843 Benito married Margarita Maza.Benito Juarez with his sister Nela (left) and his wife Margarita (right), 1843 [edit]Political career Juarez became a lawyer in 1834 and a judge in 1841. [4] He was governor of the state of Oaxaca from 1847 to 1852; in 1853, he went into exile because of his objections to the corrupt military dictatorship of Antonio Lopez de Santa Anna. [5] He spent his exile in New Orleans, Louisiana, working in a cigar factory. [6] In 1854 he helped draft the Plan of Ayutla as the basis for a liberal revolution in Mexico. [5] Faced with growing opposition, Santa Anna resigned in 1855 and Juarez returned to Mexico.The winning party, the liberales (liberals) formed a provisional government under General Juan Alvarez, inaugurating the period known as La Reforma. The Reform laws sponsored by the puro (pure) wing of the Liberal Party curtailed the power of the Catholic Church and the military, while trying to create a modern civil society and capitalist economy based on the U. S. model. The Ley Juarez (Juarez's Law) of 1855, for example, abolished special clerical and military privileges, and declared all citizens equal before the law. All the efforts ended on the promulgation of the new federalist constitution.Juarez became Chief Justice, under moderado (moderate) president Ignacio Comonfort. The conservatives led by General Felix Zuloaga, with the backing of the military and the clergy, launched a revolt under the Plan of Tacubaya on December 17, 1857. Comonfort did not want to start a bloody civil war, so made an auto-coup d'etat, dissolved the congress and appointed a new cabinet, in which the conservative party would have some influence, assuming in real terms the Tacubaya plan. Juarez, Ignacio Olvera, and many other deputies and ministers were arrested.The rebels wanted the constitution revoked completely and anothe r all-conservative government formed, so they launched another revolt on January 11, 1858, proclaiming Zuloaga as president. Comonfort re-established the congress, freeing all the prisoners and resigned as president. Under the new constitution, the chief justice immediately became interim president until proper elections could be made. Juarez took office in late January 1858. Juarez then led the liberal side in the Mexican War of the Reform, first from Queretaro and later from Veracruz.In 1859, Juarez took the radical step of declaring the confiscation of church properties. In spite of the conservatives' initial military advantage, the liberals drew on support of regionalist forces. They had U. S. help under some terms of the controversial and never approved McLane-Ocampo treaty. This turned the tide in 1860; the liberals recaptured Mexico City in January 1861. Juarez was finally properly elected president in March for another four-year term, under the Constitution of 1857. Bust of Benito Juarez in Guanajuato, Mexico.Faced with bankruptcy and a war-savaged economy, Juarez declared a moratorium on foreign debt payments. Spain, Great Britain, and France reacted with a joint seizure of the Veracruz customs house in December 1861. Spain and Britain soon withdrew after realizing that the French Emperor Napoleon III used the episode as a pretext to launch the French intervention in Mexico in 1862, with plans to establish a conservative regime. The Mexicans won an initial victory over the French at Puebla in 1862, celebrated annually as Cinco de Mayo (May 5).The French advanced again in 1863, forcing Juarez and his elected government to retreat to the north, first to San Luis Potosi, then to the arid northern city of El Paso del Norte, present day Ciudad Juarez, Chihuahua, and finally to the capital of the state, Chihuahua City, where he set up his cabinet and government-in-exile. There he would remain for the next two and one-half years. Meanwhile Maximilian von Hab sburg, a younger brother of the Emperor of Austria, was proclaimed Emperor Maximilian I of Mexico on April 10, 1864 with the backing of Napoleon III and a group of Mexican conservatives.Before Juarez fled, Congress granted him an emergency extension of his presidency, which would go into effect in 1865, when his term expired, and last until 1867 when the last of Maximilian's forces were defeated. In response to the French intervention and the elevation of Maximilian, Juarez sent General Placido Vega y Daza to the U. S. State of California to gather Mexican American sympathy for Mexico's plight. Maximilian, who personally harbored liberal and Mexican nationalist sympathies, offered Juarez amnesty, and later the post of prime minister, but Juarez refused to accept either a government â€Å"imposed by foreigners†, or a monarchy.A legitimate Mexican throne had existed long before him, founded by Emperor Augustine I after independence had been achieved in 1821, but was abolished o nly a year later, during a domestic crisis. With its own civil war over, President Andrew Johnson invoked the Monroe Doctrine to give diplomatic recognition to Juarez' government and supply weapons and funding to the Republican forces. When he could get no support in Congress, he supposedly had the Army â€Å"lose† some supplies (including rifles) â€Å"near† (across) the border with Mexico.He would not even meet with representatives of Maximilian. Gen. Philip Sheridan wrote in his journal about how he â€Å"misplaced† 30,000 muskets close to Mexico. [7] Faced with this and a growing threat from Prussia, the French troops began pulling out of Mexico in late 1866. Mexican conservatism was a spent force and was less than pleased with the liberal Maximilian. In 1867 the last of the Emperor's forces were defeated and Maximilian was sentenced to death by a military court.Despite national and international pleas for amnesty, Juarez refused to commute the sentence, and Maximilian was executed by firing squad on June 19, 1867 at Cerro de las Campanas in Queretaro. His body was returned to Europe for burial. His last words had been, ‘? Viva Mexico! ‘ Juarez was controversially re-elected President in 1867 and 1871, using the office of the presidency to ensure electoral success and suppressing revolts by opponents such as Porfirio Diaz. Benito Juarez died of a heart attack in 1872 while working at his desk in the National Palace in Mexico City. He was succeeded by Sebastian Lerdo de Tejada, his foreign minister.

Sunday, November 10, 2019

Praying for Sheetrock: A Work of Nonfiction Essay

So emphatic is Melissa Fay Greene that Praying for Sheetrock is a work of nonfiction that she includes the phrase as a part of the title. Perhaps she feared that her use of novelistic techniques might lead the reader astray into believing that the stories she tells, the history she recounts, are imagined or distorted. Without resorting to journalese, she employs some of the reporter’s tricks to make her work more immediate: background stories, anecdotes of local color, repetition, and just enough narrative tension to push her tale forward. Consciously or subconsciously, she absorbs and uses to great effect some of the techniques Truman Capote developed for In Cold Blood (1966). She re-creates conversations without unnecessary asides and, more important, in the language she heard in McIntosh County. This skillful use of dialect establishes character in ways that expository description could not. Her own narrative voice is distinctive, assured, often poetic, as in her introduction to the place about which she writes: â€Å"McIntosh County, on the flowery coast of Georgia-small, isolated, lovely.† She never forgets that it is home to the men and women, black and white who help tell her story. She says, â€Å"If the Messiah were to arrive today, this cloudless, radiant county would be magnificent enough to receive Him.† Its beauty, however, is deceptive. The grinding poverty of its residents is all too real and ugly, and, until recently, the corruption so pervasive that the county’s name was synonymous in the state with good-old-boy political chicanery. For example, one of the effective ploys to keep the black citizenry in line was to allow them to plunder wrecked transport trucks on busy U.S. 17. From the aftermath of just such a wreck, the book gets its title, and for a people as dependent on miracles as on the economy to get by, God took on the epithet of â€Å"Sheetrock- Deliverer.† Finally one man, a disabled black boilermaker named Thurnell Alston, decided his community could no longer depend on the whims of God or the vagaries of white men for justice. The men and women of McIntosh County had lived so long under a time- honored, not always benevolent despotism that, at least on this local level, Alston was revolutionary in thinking that law could be impartial and that each man and woman deserved a voice in deciding how he or she would be governed. If  McIntosh County resembled a feudal realm, it was because the sheriff, Tom Poppell, had made himself lord and master, and under him certain whites and one or two chosen blacks as his nobles. Poor blacks and whites were, pure and simple, the serfs, destined to await the largesse of Sheriff Poppell and the other elec ted white officials. Yet, as the author describes the place, it was peaceful for the inhabitants, if not for the unlucky transients who stopped enroute to Florida: â€Å"For most of this century, there was a strange racial calm in the county, consisting in part of good manners, in part of intimidation, and in part because the Sheriff cared less about the colors black and white than he did about the color green, and the sound it made shuffled, dealt out and redealt, folded and pocketed beside the wrecked trucks and inside the local truckstop, prostitution houses, clip joints, and warehouse sheds after hours.† It was a place, then, where everyone knew what was going on and, in general, accepted it, a place where problems for the old were taken to the church and for the young to the juke joint. Greene emphasizes that special local circumstances, at least particularly Southern ones, dictated that â€Å"when angry groups of blacks and whites faced each other, everyone would know everyone else’s names and addresses, and know their mamas.† They would also all be armed to the teeth, a dangerous stalemate that ironically forestalled violence. The confrontation came when a white deputy, annoyed by the drunken bantering of courtship, shot a black man in the mouth and threw him in jail without medical attention. The black community, abuzz with the news, came together in protest, and the Civil Rights movement in McIntosh County was born. Its undisputed leader was Thurnell Alston, who along with Sammie Pinkney, a retired policeofficer, and Nathaniel Grovner, a preacher, brought the tactics of protest and confrontation to bear on a system of patronage controlled by Sheriff Poppell. He had actually employed black deputies and had â€Å"allowed† blacks to register to vote in the past. He depended on their voting in a bloc for his hand- picked candidates after 1966. Until that time, he manipulated the process so that no black man or woman could have been elected to the county commission, but he was a wily and astute politician who thought that he could control the shape of the inevitable  changes he saw elsewhere when they came to â€Å"his† county. In that year, his black candidate, a 78-year-old man, was elected to the commission so that federal minority participation guidelines were satisfied. Poppell guaranteed federal funding of county projects, and although he was never indicted for any crime, some of those funds are said to have lined his and his relatives’ pockets. Sheriff Poppell already had, therefore, a respected black churchman, Deacon Thorpe, on the commission, and when Thurnell Alston ran against him the year after the shooting, the at-large voters returned the sheriff’s yes-man to office. Once again, Poppell proved his clout. Among other things he controlled in the county was the selection of grand juries, and soon after the first election Alston lost, these white men exercised what they thought would be a routine bit of county business by appointing the brother of the county grand jury’s foreman to the county board of education. â€Å"And to create that opening, they displaced Chatham Jones, the only black member of the board of education. Thus, operating out of a system of patronage and nepotism, the all-white grand jury created in its own likeness the all-white school board to preside over the majority-black public schools.† The grand jury also had the responsibility of selecting trial juries, and in such fashion, the system took vengeance on blacks who had demonstrated a raw, as-yet undisciplined, power after the shooting. The black community organized, and its leaders contacted lawyers with the state’s legal-aid network, the Georgia Legal Services Program. These â€Å"young, upper-middle-class, mostly urban, mostly Yankee lawyers,† most of whom were white and nearly all of whom shared the messianic idealism of early 1970’s radicalism, were eager to help once they realized that enfranchised blacks-the county had roughly 44 percent of its blacks registered to vote-could effectively be cut out of local politics even when they constituted a majority of the population. With help from the legal-aid attorneys, the black community eventually won a series of suits that by 1979 stipulated a random, nondiscriminatory jury selection process and that divided Darien, the county seat, into two wards, one of which is majority black, and McIntosh County into four districts, two of which are majority black. To achieve these ends, the black community transformed itself into an activist, cohesive bloc not at all reluctant to use tactics of confrontation, including boycotts, that had been successful elsewhere. They had a charismatic leader in Thurnell Alston, who appeared to relish the challenge. He became the first independent black man, untethered to the Poppell political machine, to be elected to the county commission. Greene’s description of that long, hot election day in August, 1978, combines levity with suspense to emphasize the historic nature of the occasion. She says that the celebration that night, one she recounts in vivid, you-are-there prose, was over a principle, hardfought and won, â€Å"the principle that if a person is freezing to death in the winter, she shouldn’t have to pray for sheetrock. Municipal services ought to provide her with some. â€Å"Equally momentous for this backwater of Georgia-and, probably, Greene does not give it the weight it deserves in her chronology-was the opening of the final stretch of Interstate 95 through the county. Along U.S. 17, the no-tell motels, the clip joints, the gambling dens, the rough bars dried up from lack of business and went away, and, suddenly, it was less necessary, less profitable, to control county politics in order to assure that highway robbery remained legal. Or, as Greene puts it more poetically, â€Å"The old highway became a long, hot daydream of Florida.†Meanwhile, Alston annoyed his fellow commissioners by pushing a social program while they wrangled over attracting industry, paving roads, and promoting business. His accomplishments may appear small compared to changes elsewhere, but for the rural, isolated county, they were extraordinary. In his decade in office, ignoring, defying the sheriff at every turn, taking the issues to the public, he oversaw the creation of a hospital authority and a physician-staffed medical building deep in the county. He brought plumbing and water to settlements where people used outhouses and wells. He arranged for renovation assistance programs that aided homeowners in adding bathrooms to their cabins. He saw that a multipurpose building was built for the antebellum black community on Sapelo Island. He attracted a grant to build a mental facility out in the county. He did all these things without help or hindrance from the sheriff, who was too smart not to read the writing on the wall. Local politics in Georgia are notoriously byzantine in their good-old-boy machinations, and so in a peculiar twist of fate, Thurnell Alston, in his capacity as county commissioner, served as a pallbearer at Poppell’s funeral in 1979. It is fitting death-of-an-era symbolism, especially seen against the interstate’s eclipsing of commerce, legal and otherwise, along the busiest road through the county. Had the story ended here, Praying for Sheetrock would have been a compelling study of current events, one that could be universalized to what was happening across the South. Unfortunately, the story has a coda, one equally relevant to what is happening all across the country. Thurnell Alston and his wife, Rebecca, lost a child in a mindless accident. They drifted apart, and Alston became embittered, indifferent, and eventually, careless. A local spokesman against drugs, he was nevertheless nabbed in a sting operation and sentenced to five years in prison for conspiracy to possess cocaine with intent to distribute and for using a telephone to facilitate the sale of drugs. In spite of what some in the county saw as ultimate treason to his own people, Thurnell Alston had helped effect great changes in McIntosh County. In 1992, two members of the McIntosh county commission were black, the chairman, elected on an at-large basis, was white. Two members of Darien’s city council were black; the mayor, again elected at-large, was white. Half of the county’s deputy sheriffs were black, as was half of Darien’s police force. In 1989, two black women were elected in at-large countywide elections to positions as superintendent of schools and tax commissioner. Praying for Sheetrock, among other honors, was nominee for one of the National Book Awards. It is worthy of all the critical and popular praise it has received. Beautifully written, perfectly paced, and authentic in voice and action, the book is a model history, one less gifted writers will have  trouble emulating. Its greatest success is in dramatizing one small chapter of important, very human, history. McIntosh County’s people, for the most part, are still desperately poor, and in spite of the well-deserved attention stirred by this book, the county is still an economic wasteland. Yet its people, true to their traditions, still pray for help to a busy God. More practically, they have learned that they have the United States Constitution on their side as well. references Atlantic Journal Constitution. September 22, 1991, p. N8. Chicago Tribune. December 1, 1991, VI, p. 3. The Christian Science Monitor. December 2, 1991, p. 13. Commonweal. CXVIII, December 6, 1991, p. 722. Library Journal. CXVI, October 15, 1991, p. 106. Los Angeles Times Book Review. December 15, 1991, p. 1. The Nation. CCLIII, December 23, 1991, p. 821. The New York Times Book Review. XCVI, November 3, 1991, p. 7. Publishers Weekly. CCXXXVIII, August 16, 1991, p. 40. The Washington Post Book World. XXI, November 24, 1991, p. 3.

Thursday, November 7, 2019

The 4 cornerstones of great customer service - The JobNetwork

The 4 cornerstones of great customer service - The JobNetwork Chances are, if you’re interviewing for a position in customer service- whether as a customer service rep or another service role- you’ll be asked to define good customer service or to describe what good customer service means to you. This is one of the most typical questions (right up there with â€Å"tell us about your strengths and weaknesses†) for this type of position, so you should definitely be prepared to answer it- and answer it well. Don’t panic. Here’s a primer for how to tackle your answer prep for this golden question. Make sure your answer contains elements from each of these major sections.Awareness/ExpertiseWhatever the product or company you’re representing, it’s best to have knowledge of it inside and out. Thorough intelligence about what it is you’re selling or supporting is an absolute must to deliver quality service to customers, whether you’re dealing with books, food, drinks, technology, ads, widget s, websites, or designer shoes. Mention the pride you take in knowing your product and inventory inside and out–that’s how you help consumers make the satisfying choices that will keep them coming back.DemeanorFirst and foremost, good customer service involves  a good attitude. Greeting and farewell-ing customers with a warm smile or a genuinely friendly gesture are crucial for first and final impressions. Be sure to mention friendliness, helpfulness, and willingness to go the extra mile. Highlight how you’re not the type to just go through the motions, and how you’re willing to accept responsibility and blame and fix things whenever you can.EfficiencyIt’s not enough to just be friendly and pleasant; you also have to get things done. Mention how much you value your customers’ and your company’s time. Your promptness, reliability, and efficiency- particularly under fire- are all good to describe. Talk about how you have a deal with s pecific situations from your past in a timely and graceful way.Problem-solvingCustomer service almost always involves a bit of conflict now and again. Sometimes you have to deal with problematic customers, and sometimes you need to solve particularly tricky problems for customers as they come up. Paint yourself as someone who will think outside of the box for a solution, and be prepared to describe how you have done this in the past.Your ideal answer to this common question will cover all these bases. To sound well-prepared and interesting, make sure to throw in a real-life anecdote or two with good examples of just how you were able to practice these four virtues in the past. Then, tie it all together by speaking about how and why they contribute to your overall impression of what makes good customer service (and what makes you so good at providing it). You’ll impress with how well you prepared, and be one step closer to nabbing the job.

Tuesday, November 5, 2019

Amyloplast Definition and Function

Amyloplast Definition and Function An amyloplast is an organelle found in plant cells. Amyloplasts are plastids that produce and store starch within internal membrane compartments. They are commonly found in vegetative plant tissues, such as tubers (potatoes) and bulbs. Amyloplasts are also thought to be involved in gravity sensing (gravitropism) and helping plant roots grow in a downward direction. Key Takeaways: Amyloplast and Other Plastids Plastids are plant organelles that function in nutrient synthesis and storage. These double-membrane, cytoplasmic structures have their own DNA and replicate independently of the cell.Plastids develop from immature cells called proplastids that mature into chloroplasts, chromoplasts, gerontoplasts, and leucoplasts.Amyloplasts are leucoplasts that function mainly in starch storage. They are colorless and found in plant tissues that do not undergo photosynthesis (roots and seeds).Amyloplasts synthesize transitory starch which is stored temporarily in chloroplasts and used for energy. Chloroplasts are the sites of photosynthesis and energy production in plants.Amyloplasts also help to orient root growth downward toward the direction of gravity. Amyloplasts are derived from a group of plastids known as leucoplasts. Leucoplasts have no pigmentation and appear colorless. Several other types of plastids are found within plant cells including chloroplasts (sites of photosynthesis), chromoplasts (produce plant pigments), and gerontoplasts (degraded chloroplasts). Types of Plastids This image of vertical section of a leaf was taken with a scanning electron microscope. Chloroplasts (green plastids responsible for photosynthesis) and other organelles are seen inside the cells. Clouds Hill Imaging Ltd./Corbis Documentary/Getty Images Plastids are organelles that function primarily in nutrient synthesis and storage of biological molecules. While there are different types of plastids specialized to fill specific roles, plastids share some common characteristics. They are located in the cell cytoplasm and are surrounded by a double lipid membrane. Plastids also have their own DNA and can replicate independently from the rest of the cell. Some plastids contain pigments and are colorful, while others lack pigments and are colorless. Plastids develop from immature, undifferentiated cells called proplastids. Proplastids mature into four types of specialized plastids: chloroplasts, chromoplasts, gerontoplasts, and leucoplasts. Chloroplasts: These green plastids are responsible for photosynthesis and energy production through glucose synthesis. They contain chlorophyll, a green pigment that absorbs light energy. Chloroplasts are commonly found in specialized cells called guard cells located in plant leaves and stems. Guard cells open and close tiny pores called stomata to allow for gas exchange required for photosynthesis.Chromoplasts: These colorful plastids are responsible for cartenoid pigment production and storage. Carotenoids produce red, yellow, and orange pigments. Chromoplasts are primarily located in ripened fruit, flowers, roots, and leaves of angiosperms. They are responsible for tissue coloration in plants, which serves to attract pollinators. Some chloroplasts found in unripened fruit convert to chromoplasts as the fruit matures. This change of color from green to a carotenoid color indicates that the fruit is ripe. Leaf color change in fall is due to loss of the green pigment chlorophyll, whi ch reveals the underlying carotenoid coloration of the leaves. Amyloplasts can also be converted to chromoplasts by first transitioning to amylochromoplasts (plastids containing starch and carotenoids) and then to chromoplasts. Gerontoplasts: These plastids develop from the degradation of chloroplasts, which occurs when plant cells die. In the process, chlorophyll is broken down in chloroplasts leaving only cartotenoid pigments in the resulting gerontoplast cells.Leucoplasts: These plastids lack color and function to store nutrients. Leucoplast Plastids This false-color transmission electron micrograph shows an amyloplast (large central body), a starch- containing plastid, found in a cell from the root cap of an onion. Amyloplasts contain large quantities of starch (blue globules). Dr. Jeremy Burgess/Science Photo Library/Getty Images Leucoplasts are typically found in tissues that dont undergo photosynthesis, such as roots and seeds. Types of leucoplasts include: Amyloplasts: These leucoplasts convert glucose to starch for storage. The starch is stored as granules in amyloplasts of tubers, seeds, stems, and fruit. The dense starch grains cause amyloplasts to sediment in plant tissue in response to gravity. This induces growth in a downward direction. Amyloplasts also synthesize transitory starch. This type of starch is stored temporarily in chloroplasts to be broken down and used for energy at night when photosynthesis does not occur. Transitory starch is found primarily in tissues where photosynthesis occurs, such as leaves.Elaioplasts: These leucoplasts synthesize fatty acids and store oils in lipid-filled microcompartments called plastoglobuli. They are important to the proper development of pollen grains.Etioplasts: These light-deprived chloroplasts do not contain chlorophyll but have the precursor pigment for chlorophyll production. Once exposed to light, chlorophyll production occurs and etioplasts are converted to chloroplasts.Proteino plasts: Also called aleuroplasts, these leucoplasts store protein and are often found in seeds. Amyloplast Development This image shows starch grains (green) in the parenchyma of a Clematis sp. plant. Starch is synthesized from the carbohydrate sucrose, a sugar produced by the plant during photosynthesis, and used as a source of energy. It is stored as grains in structures called amyloplasts (yellow). Steve Gschmeissner/Science Photo Library/Getty Images Amyloplasts are responsible for all starch synthesis in plants. They are found in plant parenchyma tissue which composes the outer and inner layers of stems and roots; the middle layer of leaves; and the soft tissue in fruits. Amyloplasts develop from proplastids and divide by the process of binary fission. Maturing amyloplasts develop internal membranes which create compartments for the storage of starch. Starch is a polymer of glucose that exists in two forms: amylopectin and amylose. Starch granules are composed of both amylopectin and amylose molecules arranged in a highly organized fashion. The size and number of starch grains contained within amyloplasts varies based on the plant species. Some contain a single spherical shaped grain, while others contain multiple small grains. The size of the amyloplast itself depends on the amount of starch being stored. Sources Horner, H. T., et al. Amyloplast to Chromoplast Conversion in Developing Ornamental Tobacco Floral Nectaries Provides Sugar for Nectar and Antioxidants for Protection. American Journal of Botany, vol. 94, no. 1, Jan. 2007, pp. 12–24., doi:10.3732/ajb.94.1.12. Weise, Sean E., et al. The Role of Transitory Starch in C3, CAM, and C4 Metabolism and Opportunities for Engineering Leaf Starch Accumulation. Journal of Experimental Botany, vol. 62, no. 9, 2011, pp. 3109–3118., doi:10.1093/jxb/err035.

Sunday, November 3, 2019

Business planning-ECO-CHAIR Assignment Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 1250 words

Business planning-ECO-CHAIR - Assignment Example In order to pursue this business project a private limited company will be launching this product and selling it commercially in the real market in UK. The overall funding will be the ratio of 67:33 between the owners and investors. Other than that the business plan also carries important points pertaining to production, marketing, profitability and other competitive advantages. It also takes into account the various trends on environmental grounds in people’s daily lives. It projects how the Eco-chair can be best utilized and turned into a lucrative commercial project. Eco-chair is a novel product whose design has been inspired to adjust to environmental protection. . However, we will provide the ecoboards, which are the original materials, to the manufacturers from our group in order to overcome the outsourced manufacturing weakness of quality control. Therefore, we should pay more attention to our production and require more stringently on quality management. According to the market research, we try to divide two different ways to sell the product. First of all, the one price for original consumer and other price for sponsors and cooperation companies. The price sales ï ¿ ¡5.00 per/chair in the market, and ï ¿ ¡2.50 per/chair for relative companies. Where marketing is concerned, there are a few marketing strategies that were decided in the business plan. For initial funding, we will be looking out for sponsors and sources of funding from the government to take care of all our outdoor events. In return we will be doing the branding of our sponsors through the Eco-chairs.Moreover, the HP Company or the Wal-Mart could be defined as our main sponsor. For the reason that they always eager to promote image of energy-saving, if we can cooperate with them to use our product in some events or advertisement, assuming that they think the eco-chair will be successful in the future. Although such a profit is perhaps not as good as sold

Friday, November 1, 2019

Teaching English in elementary schools in Saudi Arabia Literature review

Teaching English in elementary schools in Saudi Arabia - Literature review Example The reason is that variables involved in the development process cover those areas that this paper is interested in – the demographics of the young learners (at what age children usually learn English), the teaching content (such as how religion can be integrated in the instruction), teaching methodologies, perceived problems that are unique to Saudi children and their solutions, among others. Literature on the demographics of young learners in Saudi Arabia is quite scarce. This is more so in the field of ESL or what in identifying studies that actually investigated the beginning age of ESL learners in the country. There are researchers, however, who have mentioned some information and pertinent facts regarding this matter in their wider discourse of either English learning in the Middle East or as part of the wider profile of Saudi Arabia. An excellent example is Abir’s (1993) insights on the issue. He stated, for instance, that â€Å"the standard of education in the urban centres catering to the Saudis of middle-class background is on the whole relatively low,† and that â€Å"memorising is still the backbone of the system, while standard of English†¦ is uneven and often very poor.† (p. ... (Bingham, p. 435) Beginners are usually assessed according to their English language competency and currently they have more than 600 students coming from both expatriates and Saudis alike. Similar international schools roughly adopt the same standards. Meanwhile, the national average of new learners is glaringly different. Wilson, for example, wrote that based on statistics, Saudi children start learning at a later age but that enrolment is increasing rapidly because of extensive support from the government. (p. 106) In addition public elementary schools are usually late in introducing ESL as opposed to the private schools like in the case of Jeddah Prep & Grammar School, which has been established by British and Dutch expatriates. According to Abdan (2002), elementary students should be introduced to English in elementary school because public elementary school students are presently underexposed to the language since English is not part of the national curriculum. (p. 265-266) The benefits of introducing English to young learners, preferably to be integrated in the elementary education curriculum have been cited and proven by numerous studies. These benefits are explained in various arguments ranging from the social, cultural to psychological. According to Nikolov and the European Centre for Modern Languages (2007), young children can benefit from early language learning in the same way as older pupils do. In their research, they found that majority of teachers have been surprised to find how quickly young children pick-up English. (p. 26) It is for this reason why, in America, immigrants immediately send their children to school to learn English as part of the faster strategy to assimilate in the society. (Welch