Monday, January 27, 2020

Realist and Constructivist Approaches to Social Problems

Realist and Constructivist Approaches to Social Problems Critically analyse the way social problems are constructed and prioritised for intervention. Distinguish between the realist and construction approaches to social problems and offer an assessment of their value. Apply the relevant social theory to a contemporary social problem such as prostitution. Outlined below is a critical analysis of the way in which social problems are constructed and prioritised for intervention. This critical analysis will aim to distinguish between the realist and the construction approaches to social problems, going on to assess the value of each approach in turn. Then the social theory deemed to be the most relevant would be applied to a contemporary social problem. The realist approach to social problems is an approach that stresses that there is usually underlying causes of issues or phenomena within modern societies. The realist approach to social problems assumes that such problems have short – term and also long – term causes that are actually found ingrained into the social structures of modern societies.[1] The starting point of the realist approach to social problems stress that the underlying social causes of such problems as crime, illegal drug taking, and prostitution are generally more important over the long – term rather than the sometimes more obvious short –term causes of the phenomena being examined.[2] Advocates of the realist approach to social problems frequently contend that sociologists should always delve deeper into the specific social problems that they are evaluating. The realist approach to social problems implies that sociologists delve deeper to find out the affects of factors such as deprivation, discrimination, prejudices, and also poverty.[3] According to the realist approach to social problems these factors whether own their own, or in various combinations with each other are the real underlying causes of social problems. Therefore in many respects the realist approach to social problems has a great deal in common with the Marxist approach to social problems and all related issues. The main difference being that the Marxist approach to social problems would always contend that class and economic conflicts or developments are the root causes of every social problem.[4] The Construction approach to social problems examines the causes of all such social problems from a different perspective than the realist approach to social problems does. Whereas the realist approach to social problems contends that there are nearly always underlying factors causing these social problems, the Construction approach to social problems does not automatically that to be the case. Thus in contrast to the realist approach to social problems the Construction approach assumes that social problems are specifically constructed and that they could actually have causes that are as straightforward as they appeared to be at first glance.[5] The Construction approach to social problems argues that these problems are often constructed at the same time as the societies that they are found inside, and sometimes constructed after the society in question has already become well established. In the Construction approach to social problems it also often implied that the issues that are deemed to be social problems are classified as such due to the prevailing social and moral values within any given society. What is regarded as a social problem in one society might be regarded as being partly or entirely acceptable in another society.[6] For instance different societies have different attitudes towards issues such as homosexuality and prostitution, with more liberal minded societies perhaps not regarding them as social problems at all. Under the Construction approach to social problems various social issues and whether or not they constitute social problems depends upon the subjective values of prevailing social and moral attitudes.[7] Societies are not always entirely agreed as to which social issues can be regarded as being social problems. The Construction approach to social problems therefore finds it useful to argue that it is the strongest or prevailing social and moral attitudes that construct and prioritise social problems and labels them as such.[8] The best of the approaches to social problems to be used to construct and also to prioritise the social problem or problems being examined would be the realist approach to social problems.[9] The strength of the realist approach to social problems is that it would offer the chance to gain an understanding of the underlying causes of social problems. The realist approach to social problems such as drug taking and prostitution gives more extensive explanations than those provided by the Construction approach to social problems does. [10] The realist approach to social problems offers a deeper insight into the underlying causes of problems like prostitution. To begin with the realist approach to social problems would make the sociologists examining the issue look into all the possible underlying causes of prostitution.[11] When following the realist approach to social problems like prostitution sociologists would evaluate the parts that addiction, alienation, desperation, discrimination, sexuality, and violence played in making the problem better or worse.[12] In other words the realist approach to social problems would contend that prostitution was a social problem that demonstrates the unfair, harsh, violent, and frequently hypocritical ways social problems are formed and also understood are actually common in contemporary modern societies.[13] The realist approach to social problems would contend that prostitution has been around for thousands of years in virtually every society that has ever existed, its most obvious cause being that people will pay for sex, and that other people will exchange sexual services for cash payments. According to the realist approach to social problems prostitution has more underlying causes such as prostitutes selling their bodies to make a living, to pay for drink or drug addictions, and more sinisterly they are physically forced into doing it. Whether or not prostitutes undertake their role freely or are forced into it the realist approach to social problems would nearly always argue that they are being e xploited for the financial gains of others. The realist approach to social problems or at least its advocates would contend that prostitution will probably never go away, and the main aim of society should be to protect prostitutes from exploitation, violence, and sexually transmitted diseases.[14] Therefore to conclude the realist approach to social problems is better than the Construction approach to social problems as it allows sociologists the chance to evaluate social issues and social problems in greater detail. The realist approach to social problems offers a better understanding of the constructing and the prioritising of prostitution as a social problem. Bibliography Abercrombie N, Hill S Turner B S, (2000) The Penguin Dictionary of Sociology 4th edition, Penguin Group, London Abercrombie N, (2004) Sociology, A Short Introduction, Polity, Cambridge Cavadino M Dignan J, (2002) The Penal System An Introduction, Sage Publications Lawson T Heaton T, (1999) Crime and Deviance, MacMillan, Basingstoke 1 Footnotes [1] Abercrombie, Hill Turner B, 2000 p. 326 [2] Abercrombie, 2004 p. 25 [3] Abercrombie, Hill Turner B, 2000 p. 312 [4] Abercrombie, 2004 p. 25 [5] Lawson Heaton, 1999 p. 58 [6] Abercrombie, 2004 p. 25 [7] Lawson Heaton, 1999 p. 58 [8] Abercrombie, Hill Turner B, 2000 p. 326 [9] Lawson Heaton, 1999 p. 176 [10] Cavadino Dignan, 2002 p.53 [11] Abercrombie, 2004 p. 25 [12] Abercrombie, Hill Turner B, 2000 p. 326 [13] Cavadino Dignan, 2002 p.53 [14] Lawson Heaton, 1999 p. 58

Sunday, January 19, 2020

A Comparison of The Crucible and Nazi Germany :: comparison compare contrast essays

The Crucible and Nazi Germany Arthur Miller's portrayal of Salem, Massachusetts can be juxtaposed with Adolf Hitler's Nazi Germany. While the motivations differ, societal similarities exist and both teach us that when a whole society of people have a fear so great that it can be used against them, the society will try to do anything and everything in their power to prevent this from happening. Even when the means of prevention involves innocent people dieing and the judiciary system becoming corrupt, the society will act upon this fear of wickedness and the devil. When one group or individual has so much power and influence to lead or sentence someone to death, then there is something to worry about. In The Crucible, Abigail has the quality of speaking and always being heard, "I saw Goody Sibber with the Devil!"(Miller 48) After she says this, Thomas Putnam immediately calls the marshal to hand out warrants to the accused. A functional society can't exist without a balance in power. Even in today's society, there is a balance in power to keep the country calm. If the president had all the power, then he would be able to pass whatever ludicrous laws he wanted and basically do anything to benefit himself. Abigail had enough power, not to pass laws, but to testify and decide who should receive a warrant for witchery. When a little, irresponsible, whore of a girl has enough power to do this, she will definitely take advantage of it, and she did. Reverend John Hale also believes that the chaos in Salem can be directed towards Abigail as he said in Act II, "The world goes mad, and it profit nothing you should lay the cause to the vengeance of a little girl."(79) Throughout time, history has proven that through conflict and poor living conditions, it can be quite simple and painless to put all the blame on someone. Adolf Hitler was able to blame people such as the Jews, homosexuals, gypsies, mentally ill, etc. This seemed like an easy answer. All the problems in the world were the result of these types of people. Once Hitler was able to persuade the majority of Germany that this racist thought was true and that they should be afraid and very concerned about being taken over by these people.

Saturday, January 11, 2020

Plants Study Guide (High School) Essay

KEY CONCEPT-Plant life began in the water and became adapted to land. Plants are multicellular eukaryotes, most of which produce their own food through photosynthesis and have adapted to life on land. Plants share many characteristics with green algae. Both are photosynthetic eukaryotes with the same types of chlorophyll. Both also use starch as a storage product and have cell walls that contain cellulose. One ancient species of green algae is the common ancestor of all plants. If it were alive today, it would be classified as a charophycean. Natural selection likely favored individuals of the ancestral charophycean species that could withstand dry periods, until eventually the first true plant species evolved. Life on land presents different challenges from life in the water. These challenges have acted as selective pressures for plant life on Earth. †¢ Retaining moisture: A cuticle is a waxy, waterproof layer that helps hold in moisture. Tiny holes in the cuticle, called stomata, can open and close allowing air to move in and out. †¢ Transporting resources: A vascular system is a collection of specialized tissues that bring water and mineral nutrients up from plant roots and disperse sugars down from the leaves. †¢ Growing upright: Lignin is a material that hardens the cell walls of some tissues, providing structure for plants to grow upright and space for vascular tissue. †¢ Reproducing on land: A pollen grain is a two-celled structure produced by seed plants that contains a cell that will divide to form sperm. Pollen can be carried by wind or animals to female reproductive structures. A seed is a storage device that also protects and nourishes a plant embryo. Plants evolve with other organisms in their environment. †¢ A mutualism is an interaction between two species in which both species benefit. Important mutualisms involving plants include those between plant roots and certain fungi and bacteria, and those between plants and their animal pollinators. †¢ Plant-herbivore interactions have brought about a variety of adaptations in plants that discourage animals from eating them. These adaptations include spines, thorns, and defensive chemicals. Mosses and their relatives are seedless nonvascular plants. These plants must grow close to the ground where they can absorb water and nutrients directly. They also rely on free-standing water to allow their sperm to swim to and fertilize an egg. Therefore, these plants usually live in damp environments. Three phyla fit into the category of seedless nonvascular plants. These include the liverworts (phylum Hepatophyta), the hornworts (phylum Anthocerophyta), and mosses (phylum Bryophyta). Club mosses and ferns are seedless vascular plants. Like seedless nonvascular plants, they rely on free-standing water to allow their sperm to swim to and fertilize an egg. However, a vascular system allows these plants to grow higher above the ground and still transport materials between the roots and the leaves. Two phyla fit into the category of seedless vascular plants. These include club mosses (phylum Lycophyta) and whisk ferns, horsetails, and ferns (phylum Pterophyta). Seeds plants are able to reproduce without free-standing water. Pollen can be carried by the wind or by animals to female reproductive structures, where sperm will form from each pollen grain. Pollination occurs when pollen meets female reproductive structures of the same plant species. Seeds nourish and protect plant embryos and allow plants to disperse to new areas. Seed plants can be grouped according to whether their seeds are enclosed in fruit. †¢ A gymnosperm is a seed plant whose seeds are not enclosed in fruit. A woody cone is the reproductive structure of most gymnosperms. Three phyla fit into the category of gymnosperms. These include cycads (phylum Cycadophyta), ginkgos (phylum Ginkgophyta), and conifers (phylum Coniferophyta). †¢ An angiosperm is a seed plant whose seeds are enclosed in fruit. Angiosperms belong to a phylum of their own, commonly called flowering plants (phylum Anthophyta). A flower is the reproductive structure of flowering plants. A fruit is the mature ovary of a flower. 20.3 KEY CONCEPT The largest phylum in the plant kingdom is the flowering plants. Flowering plants have unique adaptations that allow them to dominate the landmasses of Earth today. †¢ Flowers allow for efficient pollination. Although some flowering plants are pollinated by wind, many are pollinated by animals such as birds or insects. Animals often pollinate flowers while searching for food, so they transfer pollen from flower to flower in a very targeted way. †¢ Fruit, the mature ovary of a flowering plant, plays an important role in seed dispersal. Fruits can take on many forms. Animals may eat fleshy fruits, dispersing the seeds after they have passed through their digestive tracts. Other fruits take the form of burrs that cling to wildlife or fibers that help to spread seeds by wind. Botanists classify flowering plants into two groups based on the number of cotyledons present in the seed. A cotyledon is an embryonic leaf inside a seed. †¢ Monocots have one cotyledon. Monocots generally have leaves with parallel veins, flower parts in multiples of three, and bundles of vascular tissue scattered throughout the stem. Corn, grasses, irises, and lilies are monocots. †¢ Dicots have two cotyledons. Dicots generally have leaves with netlike veins, flower parts in multiples of four or five, and bundles of vascular tissue arranged in rings. Deciduous trees and peanuts are dicots. Flowering plants can also be categorized by stem type and life span. These characteristics help describe mature flowering plants and are commonly used by botanists, gardeners, landscape designers, and horticulturists. †¢ Two stem types are woody and herbaceous. Wood is made up of dead vascular tissue cells that have lots of lignin and cellulose in their cells walls. Woody stems are thick and stiff. Herbaceous stems do not contain wood. †¢ Three basic plant lifespans are annual, biennial, and perennial. Annuals mature from seeds, produce flowers, and die all in one year. Biennials take two years to complete their life cycle. Perennials live for more than two years.

Friday, January 3, 2020

Remember The Titans Movie Analysis - 1370 Words

Introduction The movie Remember the Titans, focus on family assessment with an emphasis on family values, socialization, healthcare beliefs, and adaptation on how family solves problems. Also, family processes by way of adjustment in a newly ethnic integrated community surrounding sociocultural, environment and roles in the community. The analysis of Remember the Titans is surrounded by the main character Coach Herman Boone, his wife and two daughters including family values and adaptation. Movie Setting and Story Remember the Titans, is based on a true story about an African-American coach, Herman Boone, who became the head coach at a newly integrated high school. The movie is surrounding a racially diverse football team at T. C. Williams High School in the town of Alexandria Virginia. The movie Remember the Titans focus on a football team that overcomes racial tension and diversity and eventually adapts to their new environment and unite in society to become a winning football team. The main characters in the movie are as followed: †¢ Coach Herman Boone, newly appointed head coach at a predominately white school, recently integrated. He is married and has two young daughters in a nuclear family. †¢ Coach Bill Yoast, former head coach, and now the assistant coach, defensive coordinator. He is a single-parent family raising a daughter. He was nominated to Virginia High School Hall of Fame. †¢ Sheryl Yoast, nine and a half-year-old daughter of CoachShow MoreRelatedAnalysis Of The Movie Remember The Titans 1113 Words   |  5 PagesMovie project â€Å"Remember the titans† was a movie that was released on September 23, 2000. The movie was directed by Boaz Yakin. The movie includes famous stars such as Denzel Washington as Coach Herman Boone, Will Patton as Coach Bill Yoast, and Wood Harris as Julius `Big Ju . The movie takes place in Alexandria, Virginia. The schools in Alexandria were segregated based on race. It was in 1971 when the school board forced the people to combine the white schools and the black schools in to one calledRead MoreAnalysis Of The Movie Remember The Titans 1372 Words   |  6 Pages Remember The Titans Leading in Diverse Groups and Teams National University Jacquelyn London Abstract This paper will examine the motion picture that was released in 2000, a film named Remember the Titans. The film takes two different groups of peoples, that hates each other to come together and win the league title. The different types of factors that affected the team will be explored in this paper and how a coach takes a team from nothing to winning the league title. The performanceRead MoreAnalysis Of The Movie Remember The Titans 1728 Words   |  7 PagesIt is also seen when Louie Lastik sat with the people with coloured skin at lunch instead of with the people with ‘white skin’. Social power is when a group of people have are more dominant or have a higher status from something. In the movie Remember the titans, the people with white skin have more social power at the beginning as they are considered better than people with coloured skin. Institutional power is when individuals have more power than others from their experience and knowledge. InstitutionalRead Mo reMovie Analysis : Remember The Titans1864 Words   |  8 PagesWhen watching any movie, it is important to know the accuracy of the details that are in said movie. The movie that I watched in particular was Remember the Titans, a motivational film made in 2000 based on the true story of a Virginia football team. In the movie, two high schools in Virginia in 1971, one black and one white, combined to form the senior high school known as T.C Williams. This meant that the two football teams had to combine too, under the command of Coach Herman Boone and Coach BillRead MoreAnalysis Of The Movie Remember The Titans Essay1078 Words   |  5 Pagesbehavior, and on how they deal with a situation and make the best decision that they could. These factors also affect how someone can deal and create a harmony and relationship with others despite of racial and demographic differences. In the film Remember the Titans, directed by Boaz Yakin, it illustrates the unity and teamwork of a footbal l team regardless of every player’s race. When differences are set aside and people will work together, everything will work out as planned. This motion picture tellsRead MoreAnalysis Of The Movie Remember The Titans 1538 Words   |  7 PagesRemember the Titans is a classic movie about one black-populated high school and one white-populated high school who are forced to integrate into one school/football team in a suburban town in Virginia in 1971. Neither races are obliging to this rash decision being enforced but there was nothing to be done about it. The 70’s were a very difficult time to be a minority especially for African Americans, which is what led to many problems and struggles not only throughout the school, but specificallyRead MoreRemember The Titans Film Analysis1202 Words   |  5 PagesFilm Analysis Paper: Remember the Titans This paper will analyze the film Remember the Titans through a social psychological perspective using principles that are depicted throughout the film. This film takes place in Virginia during the segregation years. One African American coach is picked to be head coach at a school in the suburbs. His team is forced to play with another team that is all white males. Both coaches and players have to go through many difficult trials and tribulations. At firstRead MoreEssay On Dead Poets Society1300 Words   |  6 Pagesgroup (Cherry, 2017).† This type of leadership style was also perceived by virtue of the aloof style in which Lumberg demands Peter to come into work on his day off, as insinuated earlier. In view of this, we will now go ahead and Remember the Titans. Remember the Titans (Transformational Model) â€Å"The inspired leaders and the inspired organizations – regardless of their size, regardless of their industry – all think, act and communicate from the inside and out (TED, 2010).† The essence of the aforementionedRead MoreRemember the Titans2312 Words   |  10 PagesVelez Elizabeth Hughes Paul Way EDUC 268 Remember the Titans - Five Step Analysis Plot Summary In April of 1971, the United States Supreme Court issued a ruling that ended all stateimposed segregation in public schools. This was the same year that T. C. Williams High School located in Alexander Virginia was integrated. This is the setting for the movie Remember the Titans, staring Denzel Washington who portrays Herman Boone the head coach of the Titans. Herman Boone is brought in as an assistantRead MoreLeadership Analysis of Remember the Titans3056 Words   |  13 PagesRemember the Titans Titans: 1 Remember the Titians Leadership Analysis Scott W. Manchester LDR 6100 Feb/06/2011 Remember the Titans Titans: 2 Remember the Titians was set during a racially charged time in Virginian history This movie is one of those rare films that successfully brings together several issues of life, sexuality, racism and struggle with the will to succeed. The movie begins in July 1971 amid racial tensions at T .C Williams High School. It is